Food Ani. Med- Small Ruminant Diseases 5

drraythe's version from 2016-04-29 14:55

Musculoskeletal 2

Question Answer
who can get foot and mouth disease? (who cant?)All Cloven-hoofed livestock can get this dz. With cattle and swine being most susceptible, and mature sheep and goats having mild signs. Domestic pigs propagate the disease. Horses are refractory (don't get the dz)
does FMD (foot and mouth) prefer a particular age?Mortality rate is higher in young animals because cardiac lesions occur
what is seasonality for FMD like?There is an increase in spread with humidity of 60% or greater
how is FMD transmitted?Aerosol, animal contact between susceptible and infected animals, and fomites
the FMD virus is secreted from where in infected animals?All secretions and excretions of infected animals contain the virus
how long before you are able to detect FMD virus being shed?The virus is present for up to 4 days in semen and milk before clinical signs appear
what should you know about FMD in dairy cattle?The virus can survive pasteurization
TRANSMISSION--> how far of a distance can FMD virus be spread?It is possible for the virus to be spread across distances of up to 50 miles
how long with ruminants carry the FMD virus after contact with live virus?Ruminants that have contact with live FMD virus serve as foci of infection and carry the virus for up to 3.5yrs
can FMD be spread with fomites?yes: Humans (Fomites) can also carry and spread this virus on contaminated shoes or clothing or in respiratory tract tissues for longer than 24 hours
should you be worried about food products (meat/milk/frozen meat) if there is FMD around?he virus can also be transmitted in uncooked or partly cooked meat products, and it can also persist in frozen meat for years
what is the causative agent of FMD?The FMD virus is an Aphthovirus of Picornaviridae, and there are at least seven serotypes of FMDV
what are three predisposing factors for things to get FMD?(1) Improper quarantine practices (2) Failure to re-vaccinate 2-3 times per year (3) Skin abrasions can predispose small ruminants to FMD
how often should you be vx against FMD?2-3x yr
what is the main way FMD gets into the body? alternative routes?The primary site of infection and replication is the mucosa of the pharynx, but the virus can also enter through skin abrasions or the GI tract
how long is FMD incubation period? How long does the viremia last? when do the fever/vesicles appear?FMD has a 2-14 day incubation period, viremia persists for 4-5 days, and fever begins and vesicles appear at 2-21 days
once the virus gains access to the body, what does the virus do? (pathophys)(enters via pharynx usually, also can be through broken skin or GI) The virus is distributed through the lymphatic system to sites of replication in the epithelium of the mouth, muzzle, feet, teats, and areas of damaged skin. Vesicles develop at these sites and rupture, usually within 48hrs
how on earth would you be able to tell FMD from vesicular stomatitis, when they basically have all the same clinical signs?VS also affects horses, whereas horses are resistant to FMD infection
what are the clinical signs which characterize FMD? (what are some additional CSs you might see?) A fever, vesicular lesions, erosions and ulcers in the mouth, interdigital areas, on the muzzle, teats and coronary band, characterize FMD. Additional clinical signs include fever of up to 106‘F, depression, anorexia, listlessness, occasional shivering, excess salivation, lip smacking, nasal discharge, and lameness. Additionally, a drop in milk yield, loss of condition and decreased growth rate may be seen
why might young calves die suddenly without clinical signs from FMD?happens if dam was virally infected
how common is death from FMD in adults? calves?adults: death is unlikely. Sudden death can occur without clinical signs in calves who's dams were infected
**If you think you have a case of FMD on your hands and you want to dx it, what is the FIRST THING YOU SHOULD ABSOLUTELY KNOW? **This is a reportable disease in the USA**
how/where do you collect a sample to send in for dx of FMD? how should the sample be prepared for shipping?Send samples of vesicular epithelium or vesicular fluid to the national lab in phosphate buffered saline (pH of 7.4)
aside from sending the FMD sample into the lab, what are other methods of dx?Other diagnostic methods include ELISA, Antibody test, and PCR
how do you tx FMD?No treatment beyond supportive care and systemic antimicrobials to limit secondary bacterial pneumonia and mastitis
how do you do treatment/prevention of FMD in FMD ENDEMIC areas?In endemic areas, infection must be prevented through quarantine, local eradication, virus typing, and revaccination of contact and at-risk cattle
how do you treat FMD in areas where local eradication is indicated?slaughter of all affected and in contact animals is carried out. The carcasses are then burned or buried
is there a FMD vx?yes
what should you know about the efficacy and how the FMD vx works?There is a killed vaccine, but in order to be effective for 4-6 months, the vaccine must be type specific. Vaccine-induced and naturally occurring immunity is short-lived, so Vaccination is usually repeated 2-3 times per year
If there is foot rot, you need to determine the zone of the hoof the lesion is in. What are the zones/numbered? (not sure if she wants us to memorize this...) (pic)
who (sp) gets foot rot? is there a predisposed age?Sheep and goats of any age and breed
what is seasonality of foot rot like? (is there a region it likes to be in?)Southern US in hot/humid areas is common. Wet moist pastures, consistently wet without time to dry. So this totally Can be a seasonal problem
How is foot rot transmitted/ what is needed for transmission to occur?Irritation / trauma of interdigital space required for bacteria to cause infection (Cuts, bruises, puncture wounds, severe abrasions due rocks, sticks, frozen mud/ice damages the skin and can predispose). Bacteria cannot invade without damage to tissue. Contagious -- bacteria can live in soil for weeks!!!
how resistant is the etiological agent for foot rot?very Contagious, bacteria can live in soil for weeks
what are some predisposing factors for getting foot rot?Constant moisture may lead to hydropic maceration. Trauma due to rough environmental flooring may also lead to infection. For sheep and goats, infectious foot rot may arise when animals are exposed to an environment contaminated with D. nodosus
What is the etiological agent of foot rot?Essential infection with Keratinolytic strains of Dichelobacter nodosus, also Synergistic infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum. Also Spirochaeta penortha (present but not required)
the Keratinolytic type of Interdigital dermatitis affects which zones?Effects zones 0, 4-6
what are the clinical signs of foot rot?Keratinolytic infection in zones 0, 4-6. Maceration, Erythema, Necrosis, Undermined sole Debilitating lameness, Loss of production, Poor fertility, Poor growth rates, Reduced value of sheep
how can you dx foot rot?Clinical signs, Collection through swabs or biopsy for culture. PCR and ELISA also possible to detect presence in herd
why is it hard to dx footrot by culture sometimes?Contamination is likely, making it hard to tell if the culture is a true representation of the cause of the lesions
Foot rot--> Dx via CULTURE--> which causative agent being cultured suggests true foot rot? which possible causative agent is almost impossible to culture?If isolated on a culture, Fusobacterium necrophorum suggests true foot rot. However, it is Almost impossible to culture D. Nodosus
how can you prevent foot rot?Strict herd management, Regular foot trimming, and Preventative foot baths, Systemic antibiotics
4 things you can use as Preventative foot baths for foot rot?Zinc Sulfate, Copper sulfate, Formalin, Oxytetracycline solutions
what should you know about treating foot rot with systemic abx?Currently no antimicrobials labeled for sheep / goat foot rot so use is extra-label
are there vx for foot rot?Available, but efficacy is limited


Question Answer
wut dis?thymoma
WHO is most prone to getting thymoma? Is there an age predilection?Goats; Older goats (range in one report: 3 – 9 year olds)
what IS a thymoma?Neoplasia of thymic epithelial cells. it is usually BENIGN. Comprised of epithelial cells and lymphocytes, it presents as a Mass in cranial mediastinal cavity, and can be Encapsulated or cystic
what are the clinical signs of a thymoma?Dyspnea, Jugular distension, Edema of: neck, fore legs, head, and ventral thorax, Tachycardia, Lymphadenopathy, Weight loss despite good appeKte
how can you dx thymoma?Radiographs and ultrasound of thorax, Biopsy
what are some treatment options for thymoma?Usually no treatment, just euthanasia. Can try Prednisolone or Resection. (difficult if cystic)