Food Ani. Med- Small Ruminant Diseases 3

wilsbach's version from 2016-01-20 21:58


Question Answer
Brucella--> Brucella melitensis affects who? Brucella ovis affects who?MELITENSIS: sheep and goats, as well as cattle, camels, dogs, and humans. OVIS: sheep only
WHO gets the ACTIVE brucella infection?only males. Females rarely infected and if so only transiently infected.
how is Brucella melitensis transmitted?Transmitted between rams through direct contact. In ewes, after mating with infected rams. Shed intermittently from infected rams for years. Transmitted through ingestion after which replication occurs in the chorioallantoic trophoblasts
how is brucella ovis transmitted?Infection through the conjunctiva Low virulence in the ewe but can replicate in the chorioallantoic trophoblast
what is pathophys of ovine brucellosis like?mainly affects rams, causing lesions in their reproductive organs namely epididymitis
where does brucella like to replicate?Brucella replicates in the chorioallantoic trophoblast causing placentitis and fetal bacteremia
2 predisposing factors for brucella?(1) Susceptibility in rams increases in age. (2) Crowded facilities
what are the clinical signs of brucella in GOATS? SHEEP? BOTH?GOATS: arthritis and orchitis. SHEEP: epididymitis-->dec fertility. BOTH: Abortion in 4th month of pregnancy OR still birth at term OR birth of weak neonates. See Placentitis and fetal serositis at necropsy
If brucella causes abortion, when will it occur? What are the other options for messed up babies?4th month abortion, or still birth at term or weak bbs
a fetus infected with brucella at necropsy will look like...Placentitis and fetal serositis at necropsy
for presumptive dx OR to screen flocks, what method of dx is used? (brucella)Microscopic examination of semen or smears stained with the Stamp's modification of the Ziehl-Neelsen method
What types of dx tests are most commonly performed in small rumis to detect brucella?SEROLOGY!! specifically Buffered Brucella antigen test or Complement fixation test
if you wanna use PCR to detect brucella, what samples can you use?Milk, blood, vaginal discharge, or aborted fetuses/ placentas.
what dx tests are used to detect carriers of brucella?Agglutination, precipitation, and complement fixation tests.
how do you definitively dx brucella ovis?culturing it
how do you tx brucella?There is currently no treatment available for brucellosis in goats or sheep. In countries with low prevalence of infection, slaughter of the entire flock is the preferred control method. Test and slaughter is another option
is there a vx for brucella ovis? brucella melitensis?OVIS: there is a vx in new zealand but it has poor efficacy. MELITENSIS: the Rev1 vx, but can cause abortions in pregnant animals, and can interfere with serological testing results. Vaccination for Brucellosis is not practiced in the US
WHO (signalment) gets pregnancy toxemia?Pregnant ewes and does in last trimester of gestation, esp if theyre older
what are risk factors for preg toxemia?Anything affecting ability to eat enough! Carrying multiple fetuses, fat/thin, Small and timid so bullied, Old ewes, Disease such as dental disease, parasitism, Too much exercise or too little exercise
what kinda disorder is preg toxemia, and WHEN in preg is it seen?METABOLIC disorder seen in last trimester (late preg)
explain the Pathophysiology and clinical signs of preg toxemiaInadequate nutrition to meet metabolic demands and maintain metabolic homeostasis--> Low blood glucose leading to excessive fat breakdown and production of Ketones--> Ketone acidosis leads to inappetence and lethargy exacerbating the situation--> Ketones affect the brain, causing depression and aimless walking. Teeth grinding and twitching may also be seen. Eventually, affected ewes become depressed, weak and have poor muscle control. In later stages, they lie down and are unable to rise. If left untreated, coma and death result!
3 ways to dx preg tox?(1) hx and cs (2) Ketones on breath (3) Ketones in urine, milk and blood
what are some things you can do to tx preg tox?Force feed high calorie dense diet, Transfaunate, In more severe cases, drench ewes/does with 2 to 3 ounces of propylene glycol 2 to 3 times daily. IV glucose and fluids. Vitamin B complex. Parenteral nutrition, and C-section
what can you drench ewes/does with in cases of severe preg tox?propylene glycol
what's the best way to prevent preg tox? (since prevention is easier than tx!)Supplement feeding in last trimester
why is preg tox so prevalent in the last trimester?70% of fetal growth occurs in last trimester
what can help determine which animals need extra feed at critical points of the cycle?a Body scoring system
Ewes / does on good quality pasture may consume 4 – 5% of body weight in dry much more do ewes/does need to consume if they are carrying multiple fetii?need 2 – 3 times the dry matter than do those carrying singles

Neuro 1 (she said know everything about listeria)

Question Answer
who gets the subclinical version of copper deficiency?adult sheep
what age animals are most susceptible to copper deficiency?young animals
what are the two major risk factors for Cu deficiency?(1) Regions where soils and forages are low in copper or have elevated levels of molybdenum, sulfates, zinc, iron, or other compounds (2) Young on milk diet only (Milk is low in copper)
what kinda diet is really low in copper?all milk diet
so obviously if there is low Cu in the soil you can get a deficiency...but what things being HIGH in the soil can lead to Cu deficiency?molybdenum, sulfates, zinc, iron, or other compounds
what is the difference between primary and secondary Cu deficiency?PRIMARY: the result of too little Cu consumed. SECONDARY: associated with high dietary levels of molybdenum, sulfates, zinc, iron, or other compounds..
Why does the body need Cu?Copper has a central roll in many enzymes, co enzymes and metalloproteases in the body
enzootic ataxia of sheep and goats, or swayback, are different names for what?neurological condition caused by demyelination due to Cu deficiency
what are the clinical signs of Cu deficiency?Diarrhea, decreased weight gain, unthrifty appearance. Demyelination (enzootic ataxia of sheep and goats, or swayback), anemia, Spontaneous fractures, lameness (epiphysitis), Changes in coat color (achromotrichia) or wool quality, Infertility
woah, my sheep's coat color is changing. What's up with that doc??needs Copper bro
so there are many different syndromes associated with cu there usually a mix or a predominant one?One of these syndromes usually predominates in a given herd
What are the most common clinical signs seen with SECONDARY Cu deficiency?open presents with clinical signs of diarrhea and weight loss or unthriftiness
what is the PREFERRED sample to take if you want to dx Cu deficiency?Hepatic copper concentration is preferred sample, rather than serum or plasma levels
hepatic copper levels of ___ are considered definitiveless than 35 ppm (ppm is 1:1 mg/kg (35mg/kg= 35ppm) )
If you want to collect a hepatic copper concentration, how do you get this sample? (specifics of what you will need?)Surgical biopsy is necessary for live patients as laboratories generally require 100 mg or more. A biopsy instrument with an internal diameter of 3 to 5 mm is necessary
how do you treat Cu deficiency?Ensure other heavy metals are at appropriate levels, Supplement copper. Injectable copper is available for severe cases
what is the MINIMUM recommended dietary Cu concentration (dry matter basis) for cattle? Goats? Sheep? Are there any specific breeds where it might be a diff value?CATTLE: 4-10 PPM (PPM aka mg/kg). Goats can be up to 10 ppm. SHEEP: 5 ppm. And merino sheep specifically need 7 ppm (so....goats can eat cow food but sheep cant)
if an animal is tilting its head so that the right ear is down and the left is up, what would you call this head tilt? ( R or L)Right sided head tilt. Call it by the side tilted down
signalment of who can get listeria?Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Pigs, (Humans); Any age group
what is the seasonality of listeria?more common in winter/spring. This is bc that is when they are being fed silage, and this is a dz they get from eating spoiled silage!
what age is most prone to listeria, and why?Young animal may be susceptible as the permanent teeth erupt – exposing trigeminal nerve rootlets
what are three major risk factors for getting listeria?(1) eating silage, esp SPOILED silage (2) Feedlot or housed animals (crowding) (3) Young animal may be susceptible as the permanent teeth erupt – exposing trigeminal nerve rootlets
what kinda silage situation makes listeria happy and want to grow?elevated pH (alkaline) allows listeria to grow
how is listeria transmitted?ingested or inhaled: can be from ingesting spoiled silage, Ingesting feces of an animal who ate spoiled silage, or rotten vegetation in pasture, or Ingesting feces from clinical or asymptomatic carriers of Listeria
what is the agent which causes listeriosis? (what is it)Listeria monocytogenes: A Gram positive bacteria. (16 serovars of Listeria) (G+ means no endotoxins, but they do have exotoxins)
how resistant is listeria to environmental conditions?The bacteria can multiply at low environmental temperatures and is Able to survive in the environment for 2 years in dry soil
what is the pathophysiology of listeria? (how does it do its damage?)produces ***hemolysin – a toxin which is spread as the bacteria spreads in the body. Reaches the brain through the blood or cranial nerve rootlets, and then forms microabscesses
how does listeria get to the brain?Infection of the brain may be hematogenous or by ascent from cranial nerve rootlets.
what are the clinical signs of a listeria infection? (what are the specific disorders is causes)Primarily myeloencephalitis or meningioencephalitis. Microabscesses in the brain. Multifocal disorder usually asymmetrical (just all over the brain). Signs dependent on where microabcesses are located, but usually see: Initially anorexia, depression, disorientation. Then, Later in the disease, facial paralysis or other cranial nerve neuropathies, circling (also known as circling disease), ataxia, strabismus, nystagmus, ptosis..
how might listeria affect neonates specifically?can cause septicemia in neonates
"circling dz" is akalisteria
how might listeria affect lambs specifically?Lambs may get spinal myelitis
what are two things that have been reported in chronic cases of listeria? Latent infection and uveitis
can listeria cause abortion?late term abortions, yes
what are two ways you can try to dx listeria pre-mortem?(1) Isolation from CSF or tissue samples (challenging) (2) A selective enrichment medium (bovine blood agar) is required for bacterial in culture.
if you want to culture listeria what must you keep in mind?need a selective enrichment medium (bovine blood agar)
what will listeria look like post-mortem (dx signs)multifocal microabscesses are seen most open in the brainstem but also cerebellar peduncles or spinal cord (which is why you can see cerebellar dz/ intention tremors/ ataxia)
what are things you can do to treat listeria? (4 main options)(1) High doses of Oxytetracycline (IV) (2) High doses of Penicillin (IV) (3) Combination of Oxytetracycline and Penicillin (4) Antimicrobials for extended duration (4 weeks) <--takes a long time to get into an abscess + Fluids and other supportive therapy + Acid base and electrolyte balance correction + vit B1
how can you prevent listeria?Reduce environmental contamination (said in class: there is a vx but not avail in the US and not used everywhere out of the us)

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