Food Ani. Med- Neonatology 1

wilsbach's version from 2016-04-20 22:03


Question Answer
till what age is a neonate a neonate?neonate for first mo of life
what are clinical signs mom is in stage 1 of labor? Separate from group, restless, nesting, vocalization.
what will you see with a pelvic/rectal exam in stage 1 of labor?fetus towards the exit now, uterine tissue pushed back, cervix dilating (Dr may says stage 1 is cervical dilation)
what is ferguson's reflex, what stage do you see this?Stage 1: it is when the fetus pushes on the cervix--> causes uterine and and abdominal contractions---> causes fetus to be pushed towards cervix again (Dr. May's definition is: uterine contraction causes release of oxytocin, which causes more uterine contractions, etc etc)
what signals the start of stage 2? what happens in stage 2? what signals end of stage 2?rupture of the allantochorion. This is hard labor and there is lots of straining. Stage two ends with delivery of neonate (Dr may says stage 2 is expulsion of the fetus)
what does fetal presentation mean?cr or ca or transverse (presentation, position, posture)
how does calf position itself in stage one?sternal recumbency with head, neck, and forelimb extended
during stage two, how does mom usually position herself, and why?lateral recumb, help position fetus for exit
what is stage three? what happens in stage 3?expulsion of fetal membranes. What happens is: detachment of cotyledons, uterine contractions expel entire placenta
****how long are fetal membranes in there before considered retained in ruminants?>12hr= retained
how long is involution in small rumi? cow?small rumi: 28d (small rumi= one february). Cow: 40-60d (almost 2mo)
*******How long is lochia normal in a small rumi? Cow?SR: 3wk. COW: 12-15d(so like less than three weeks for cows-- SR lochia longer??? woah)
******Neonate CALF: how long for suckle reflex? sternal recumbency? attempting to stand? Standing? nursing? SHOULD have colostrum by?suckle reflex AND sternal recumbency by abt 5min. Attempting to stand should be by abt 15min. Standing by abt 1hr. Nursing by abt <2hr. SHOULD have colostrum by <4hr
assessing neonate: TPR and mm?T: 102-103 at calving, 101-102 by 1hr old. P: 100-150. R: 50-70. MM pink, <2crt.
what does it mean if a calf has coronitis?(inflammation of coronary band) might mean SEPSIS
most common congenital defect in calves?cleft palate
(she doesnt like this) what does the APGAR score look at? what are the scores like?look at A: activity/attitude/mm tone P: pulse. G: Grimace/response to stimuli. A: appearance/mucous membranes. R: respiration. Give score of 0,1,2 to each part, total score 1-10
all neonates are ___ until proven otherwiseSEPTIC
why might hematology be helpful?very low (sequestration) or very high neutrophils (bands) might indicate sepsis
what biochem stuff can tell you there was a prob during birth?blood gas stuff (PCO2, PO2, bicarb etc)
what biochem thing tells you there is CURRENTLY an inflammatory process going on?serum amyloid A
so you have high serum fibrinogen but also elevated serum amyloid A- what does this mean?serum amyloid A= current inflammatory process, but fibrinogen means chronic (>36hrs) so it means there was an inflammatory process and it is still going on
serum biochem which might indicate in-utero stress? (prob before it was born)elevated fibrinogen (takes like 36 hrs to come up) BUN elevated (stress causes metabolising= makes BUN) . Crt might go up (if distressed, can drink utero fluid, which has a lot of crt-- time it takes for this to go DOWN indicates if there is renal dz). Low albumin (distress= high metabolism= using it up)
how long for suckle reflex?should be by abt 5min
how long till standing?should be by 1hr (attempting to do so by 15min)
how long till nursing?<2 hours
colostrum should be in by when?<4hr
if a calf was born unobserved on a farm, how do you know if it has stood and nursed?loss of slippers and some belly fill (abdominal fill)
if calf is not breathing, what should you check before you start to resuscitate?RIB FRACTURES and if it's alive (corneal edema) and if its viable (is it a monster-- which means serious abnormalities. like schistosoma reflexa, bullnose calves, polydactyly- should euthanise)
if mom has just given birth, what should you offer?WATER- they might be very thirsty (losing that whole thing in the uterus dec pressure which contributes to overall circulatory pressure so might have to replace that)
if the neonate has corneal edema, what does that mean?it's been dead for a while- dont bother trying to resuscitate
what does it mean if the fetus has no PLR?poor or no brain perfusion-- very poor prognostic indicator.
why should you always check if there are rib fxs?bc if you dont check and try to resuscitate- you can stab the heart with the broken pieces. (CPR other side or find other way to ventilate without pressing on chest)
what might make you think viability of pt is less based on hair coat?if it's SUPER fine (sign of prematurity). Long hair= DYSMATURE (overcooked)
meconium staining means?stress in utero

colostrum and mgmt

Question Answer
which Ab do we look for in colostrum?IgG
why do calves need colostrum so badly? (sthing with their physiology)their neutrophils are less effective initially
what at the time of birth depresses WBC function in calves, meaning colostrum is extra needed?cortisol
what does cold stress of newborn do to the immune system?(1) depresses neutrophil chemotaxis (2) vasoconstriction dec delivery to periphery (inc risk of joint infections, etc)
which deficiencies are associated with depressed phagocyte fxn?Se, Zn, Cu, vit E
what constituents of colostrum help fight infection?PRPs (protein rich polypepties), Igs, and other protein constituents help humoral immunity and phagocytic fxn, it also has adult leukocytes to augment cellular immunity, and calf leukocytes work better when Ag is opsonized by adult serum.
**what is the problem with frozen colostrum?the colostrum leukocytes are destroyed when frozen (remember they augment cellular immunity)
what is considered a good conc of IgG in colostrum?anywhere between 20-110g/L (80% of colostrum Abs are IgG.. 15% IgA, 10% IgM<---so measure IgG bc its the most)
IgA usually helps where?usually stays in gut and helps fight things in the gut.
what is IgMs role?M for "iMediate" produced from recent exposure
how long before IgG starts to decline in milk?9 hours (should have drank colostrum by 4 hours, remember-- so should milk out colostrum right away bc after 9 hrs starts producing less)
3 ways to easily assess colostrum quality/Ig content?(1) Visual/colostrometer (place floaty thing in cylinder filled with colostrum) (2) Brix refractometer (looks like normal refract but is for colostrum)
on a Brix refractometer, 22% is how many g/L IgG?50g/L
which 4 (2 for cows, 4 for small rumis) dzs are you worried about being in colostrum?Johnes, mycoplasma... and for SR: CAE and OPP
how effective are freezing and pasteurizing for bacterial load in colostrum?both reduce but dont sterilize
how much colostrum should a small rumi have in first hour/ first day?FIRST HOUR: 50ml/kg. FIRST DAY: 200ml/kg
how much colostrum should a calf have in the first day, how much can you give at a time?should have 10-20% of body weight in first day, but will need to do mult feedings bc cant take more than 4L at a time (or will delay abomasal emptying)
example of colostrum feeding protocol in a 50kg calf?so you have a 50kg calf and you want to feed them 10-20% of their body weight (so 15% is in the middle) so 7.5L, but they can only take like 4L at a time, so you split that in half= 3.75L in the first feeding (before 4 hours old) IgG content is 20-110g/L (she said the 3.75L would provide 150g/L IgG from this, I assume she just averaged the 20-110g/L and mult by 3.75L to get that number), Then she fed the other 3.75L after 12 hours.
she said you should feed more than __L of colostrum, but less than __L of colostrummore than 2L at a time, but less than (or up to) 4L at a time.
how much to feed lambs/kids colsotrum? (example of protocol)should get about 10% of their body weight in colostrum by first 24hrs, so a 10lb lamb should get about 1lb (16oz) of colostrum by 24 hrs (ideally should consume half of this within 4-8hrs of birth)
how can the age of mom affect colostrum?young ewes/does generally produce LESS colostrum and milk bc udders less developed. Also older ewes have been exposed to more Ags over their life so their colostrum has more Abs than a younger ones. So at lambing, check for quality and quantity of colostrum.
no matter what way you choose to get the colostrum into the neonate, you need to make sure what?make sure it doesnt go so far in that it does into rumen, want the ESOPHAGEAL GROOVE to close up to bypass the rumen so it can get to the abomasum.
when does gut start closing, when is it basically closed?starts closing at 4hr, essentially closed by 12hr
how can you stim eso groove to close before feeding ?let them suck on your fingers for a bit before feeding
if the first feed is __L, gut will remain permeable for slightly longer and rate of absorption will inc in response to subsequent feeds2L
what happens if you give 4L all at once?abomasal outflow delayed
temp you wanna feed colostrum at?when its nice and warm (cools off out of mom quite quickly)
3 tests you can do to make sure calf has absorbed enough IgG from mom/colostrum?(1) zinc turbidity test (2) radial immunodiffusion assay RIA/RID (gold standard) (3) ***TP on refractometer
what should TP be like to indicate successful passive transfer if...neonate is ill? healthy? (CALF) what about goaT?Ill= cutoff slightly higher bc want to have them have more to fight off what is already making them sick, so >5.5g/dL. Healthy neonate should be >5.2 ....5.2 TP is equivalent to about 1000mg/dL IgG FOR GOAT: 5.3g.dL (1600mg/dL) is desirable ( <600mg is FPT in goat)
what enzyme can you check in neonates blood that tells them they nursed? how does this work?GGT bc GGT is in all duct cells (although commonly associated with bile duct) so that includes ducts in mammary that gets passed to bb. So elevated GGT in calf <1wk old= it prolly just nursed lol
most important management part of calving lineSTRESS FREE
different ways they split up/manage preggo momsClose up barn--> calving barn--> newborn and moms pen. (dairy calves removed in first few hours of life)
milk dzsBVDV, mycoplasma bovis (mastitis/resp), johnes, CAE, OPP, salmonella dublin, neospora caninum... (if mastitic mom nurses baby, often times at baby's first milking as adult they will come back positive for mastitis), staph aureus. DONT FEED MASTITIC MILK TO BBS
umbilical infection goes right to the...liver. and then the whole system
3 main routes of infection for neonates?Umbilicus, oral (no microflora, less HCl), resp (close to ground, chest compliance, immune function)
common consequences of infxn in neonatessepticemia, pneumonia, diarrhea, joints!
what can you tx umbilicus with?(1) tincture of iodine (2-7%= DILUTE!) and only on tip of umbilicus (2) chlorhex (she likes iodine better)
if the calf is sick, what should you do about feeding?try to keep feeding it if at all possible-- support enterocyte fxn
When should calves be fed (the first time)2 hours-- or at least before 4 hours.
how much should calves be fed?2-4 (4max- otherwise slows down abomasal transport) L of colostrum at once (best is splitting up between 2 and 2)
how do we know colostrum is good quality?test igg, brix refractometer, test to make sure dz free, if pools not out too long bc bact (TP is not for colostrum thats later on with calves serum) and can use colostrometer to check if good quality.
how do we know if calf has FPT?zinc sulfate, radio immunodeficiency (RID) test, TP test. Serum vs plasma-- plasma is more likely to be used bc still contains clotting factors (unclotted blood). Get plasma with heparin or EDTA. TP is good bc farmer can do on farm, RID is best but RID is expensive.
risks of FPT?less immunotolerant, more likely to get dz/infxn. So if dont have PT of immunity, have poorer immune system, more likely to get dz
what dzs commonly seen in poorly managed neonatal calves?septicemia, pneumonia, diarrhea, joint dz, umbilical infection (or dzs from milk)
what are the risks peripartum for the calf in terms of dz contraction? how can risks be lowered? moms health status can influence that, placental transfer, cleanliness of birthing pen. dystocia, FPTI-- all the mom factors+enviro factors+equipment factors. how calving goes, as well as neonate factors. LOWERED: barn hygenic, keep things clean, isolate sick things, colostrum, vx to mom, keep things dry warm stress free and ventilated.
what dzs can be transmitted in unpasteurized milk?CAE, OPP for small rumis and Johnnes for cows and small rumis (these are the major ones-- BVD, salmonella dublin, BLV, neospora caninum, brucellosis, M. bovis, coxiella burnetti)
what will you see clinically if calf has been dead for a while before birth?corneal edema is #1. longer dead= more profound. then fur falls off, fetus is dehydrated, etc.

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