Food Ani. Med- Intro to Sm. Rumis 2

drraythe's version from 2016-04-29 14:53

Nutrition Part 2

Question Answer
how does repro status influence daily water intake?if the female is lactating she consumes WAY more water than if she is not (lact:7 – 15 L/day. non-lact:3.5 – 7 L/day)
how does diet influence daily water intake?lush pasture 80% moisture vs Hay 12% moisture (so lush pasture you are feeding mainly water)
so you go out to a farm and there are goats out in a lush field in spring. the farmer left out no water for them!! should you scold him nicely?no way! Farmers do not always provide water on lush pasture-- 10 Kg of lush pasture at 80% moisture provides 8L of water
when do you prolly want to supplement daily energy requirements? (2)during pregnancy and lactation.
how much dietary crude protein is needed for normal rumen bacterial growth/fxn?>7%
what happens if crude protein falls below the minimum amount needed? (what is this again?)(need min >7%) there is depressed forage intake and digestibility
how does crude protein needs change during lactation?During lactation 13 – 15% CP is required depending on number of offspring and milk production.
what happens if the protein in the diet is too high?(1) high feed costs (2) Diseases such as heat stress and pizzle rot
what can you provide in the feed which allows efficient protein synthesis by rumen microbes?grain with non protein nitrogen (NPN) (provide the nitrogen, the microbes make the proteins)
if you are going to feed non-protein nitrogen (NPN) (and why would you?) what must you avoid?(more efficient protein synthesis by rumen microbes) limit feeds containing urease enzyme (like soya bean)
how much fiber should be in the diet?should be the BULK OF THE DIET >50%
what is roughage seeking behavior which would let you know your small rumis need more fiber?"wool pulling". This is usually seen with concentrate based diets low in fiber
why do we care about how long the fiber is cut? how long should it be?Particle size important to stimulate normal rumination (1 – 2.5cm)
what happens if the fiber is cut into too small of pieces?acidosis bc digest too quickly.
if a small rumi is always on lush pasture, what is some stuff that can happen?high water content can lead to diarrhea. Also, lush pasture lacks "scratch factor" which leads to poor ruminal papillary development, which means less surface area for absorption, which means less nutritional effeciency.
Pastures--> if the farmer is using pastures, he probably does breeding in the ___ and lambing in the _____fall breeding spring lambing.
feeding _________ can inc PASTURE productivitylegumes
if you are going to provide a large, sprawling pasture for your small rumis, what is something you must keep in mind?Large pastures or range can increase energy requirements more than 60% from walking (*If sheep/goats have to walk miles to graze enough food they use up energy doing this so will have to consume more than if they were stationary.)
What is rotational grazing, and why do we like it?This is when you have multiple smaller pastures which you rotate your stock on so the fields can rest. Allowing the fields to rest helps increase pasture quality (not over grazed or trampled) and helps with parasite management. Ideally you want 10 paddocks of an average of 3 days at a time, so that by the time the flock returns to the first field it has been rested 30 days (some suggest 42 is better)
what is confinement feeding, and what are the pros and cons of it? (what must you do to make this setup work?)this is where they are fed in dry lots or barns. PROS: help reduce internal parasites and predators. CONS: you will need to pay better attention to hoof care, udder health, and you will need to provide vitamin D supplementation if they don't get to see much sun because of large barns. This type of setup can lead to competition though, so you should separate by age and production state
how much time do you need to allow for confinement feeding, as compared to pasture?Only 2 -4 hours is required for animals to consume the equivalent amount as would have been consumed in 16-22 hrs while grazing
what are examples of cut feeds you give in confinement feeding, and what are some risks associated with these cut feeds?Cut grass/ greens, hay, haylage and silage... Issues associated with cut feeds can include Listeria, mold, dust, and toxic plant contamination
Feeding an Adult Male--> BCS is part of the BSE. The PRE-BREEDING BCS should be maintained at what?3-4
when do you want to fatten up an adult male, and why?4-6 weeks prior to breeding, because Can lose 12% of body weight in 1.5months of breeding
the average adult male needs how much DM (dry matter/forage) and how much CP (crude protein) concentrate?Average male requires 6–8lb (DM) of forage and 1–2 lb of a 12–14% CP concentrate
who (sheep or goat) CAN you give a cattle mineral block, and who can't you? why?Sheep can not tolerate high copper concentrations!! So you can only give goats a cow mineral block, sheep need one with lower Cu
what can you supplement to help prevent urolithiasis in adult males?add urine acidifiers like ammonium chloride
when feeding adult females, how often should you check their BCS as a management tool?every 2-3 weeks
what is flushing/flush feeding and why do we do it?Feeding a high plane of nutrition 2 weeks before mating and 2 -3 weeks into breeding season. This leads to inc numbers of females cycling early, which leads to more offspring in early lambing/kidding season.
what influences response to flushing/flush feeding?age, health and BCS
what is optimal BCS for adult female breeding flocks?2.5-3
feeding the adult female--> how do requirements change during early to mid gestation? what will deficiencies result in?Requirements not much increased over maintenance (2.5-3), Deficiencies may result in early embryonic death (EED). Usually during mid gestation it is winter, so they are Kept on winter range/pasture so may need supplemental feeding
what do you wanna keep the BCS at during gestation?2.5-3
are there more problems from under or over feeding during late gestation?More problems from underfeeding
so you have fat and skinny pregnant ewes in late gestation and you can under or over feed them- which situation is the perfect storm?an OBESE ewe going into a NEGATIVE energy balance (So fat and underfed) is the worst case because it can lead to hepatic lipidosis/ metabolic disorders, so you need to maintain obesity if they are in late gestation
when does most fetal growth occur, why do we care?70 – 80% of fetal growth in final 6 weeks of gestation- this means they are more likely to go into a negative energy balance during this time, so supplemental feeding is recc for the last 1.5mo gestation
when in gestation do you want to provide supplemental feeding, what are the benefits of this?last 1.5mo of gestation- promote healthy offspring, prevent preg toxemia, promote udder development
so you know you need to increase feeding during late gestation- what kinda food should you be providing, and why?calorie DENSE foods, because they don't have much room left in their rumen due to fetii. So, Supplement grain (1 lb for sheep and 2 lb for goats)
When is peak lactation? when does it drop off?Peak lactation at 2 – 3 weeks post parturition, Drops off by 8 – 10 weeks after parturition. Dairy goats maintain production
at peak production of milk, what is the limiting factor?feed consumption is the limiting factor (impossible to consume enough energy)
how should you feed dams around weaning time? why?Feed dams poor quality forage 1 week before weaning. This decreases milk production to help wean the babies, and dec the incidences of mastitis
what age is considered early weaning? late?EArly: 4wk. Late: after 12wk
guidelines for weaning--> wean at what body weight, or when consuming what/how much?BODY WEIGHT: wean at apprx 10kg and or when consuming 0.23 kg/day of 16-18% CP grain (creep feed <--this is food especially designed for babies)

sheep/goat milk

Question Answer
which sp.'s milk is naturally homogenized? how is it possible that it is naturally homogenized?GOATS milk is, because the Milk fat globulins of goats are very small (so they don't float to the top) and Milk fat globulins lack agglutinin ( agglutinin causes fat/cream to rise to the top)
is goat or sheep milk more easily digested by humans, and why?goats, because it has Lower alpha-S1 Casein so is easier to digest. However, it is not truly hypoallergenic
do goats or sheep produce more cheese per liter of milk, and why?GOATS, because there is more protein and milk solids to make more cheese
what is a Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and why do we do it?Concentration of “somatic” (body) cells in the milk, relates to quality of the milk (basically puss in your milk).
what is a specific example of a type of somatic cell count for milk, and how does it work?California Mastitis Test (CMT) is a test where milk is placed in little dishes and if there is a high number of somatic cells, there is a reaction and the milk becomes thicker and gel-like.
what results of the california mastitis test are acceptable, and what is not?Carefully consider the individual case! 0, Trace and 1 is ok but 2 and up is not OK (Also depends on tester, 2 may be acceptable if a weak 2) (pretty sure we don't need to memorize this chart but useful to read over)
which cells are most commonly seen in goats milk? sheep?Goat: neuts. Sheep: monos
what does milk secretion in the mammary gland differ between cow, sheep, and goat, and what implications does this have?Goats have apocrine milk secretion which leads to increased SCC (because a large portion of the cell is removed in order to release the milk) whereas sheep and cows have merocrine milk secretion where it is just a small vesicle released.
what type of milk secretion leads to inc SCC (somatic cell count) in milk?apocrine (as opposed to merocrine)
which two small rumi dzs can lead to increased SCC (somatic cell count) in milk?Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP), and Caprine Arthritis and Encephalitis (CAE)
Legal limit of bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) for GOATS? SHEEP? Why is it different?GOATS: 1million c/ml. SHEEP: > 750000c/ml (similar to cows)..the difference is due to their different methods of milk secretion
when is the milk's SCC (Somatic cell count) at it's lowest?lowest in second month of lactation, concurrent with peak lactation

Feedlotters/ castration/ dehorning

Question Answer
what is happening at the feedlot?Fattening and preparing the animal for slaughter
at what weight and age do small rumis enter the feedlot? When are they slaughtered?Enter at ~ 50 lb at 3 -5 months old. Slaughter at 110 - 140 lb
When do you castrate? (age)14 days (2 weeks)- any earlier there are inc risks because of how young they are, any older and it will be more painful
what is the risk of castrating too early?inc rates of urolithiasis
what is the risk of castrating too late?inc rate of pain, infection
what is the risk of an open castration?open route to abdomen, so inc risk of infections
how does castration affect horn growth?testosterone promotes horn growth, so castration dec it
why would you want to castrate a pet goat?limits odor
why would you want to castrate bucks in a milking herd?having intact males near milking females can cause a "buck flavor" in the milk.
what is the difference between dehorning and disbudding?you dehorn mature animals, you disbud immature animals
When do you disbud a small rumi? what are the risks?do in the first 14 days of life. However, a small rumi skull is thin and the heat generated by this process can cook the brain. So don't do that. Do it quickly and effectively! If you don't remove all of the horn you will get horn spurs
***what is the toxic dose of lidocaine?10mg/kg (so she won't go above 8mg/kg)
**Onset and duration of lidocaine?onset: 5 min. Duration: 20min-1hr
***what are the clinical signs for lidocaine toxicity? (remember tox dose)neuro signs (tox dose 10mg/kg)
what drug shouldn't you combine with lidocaine, and why?epinephrine (this may cause vasoconstriction and skin necrosis and sloughing)
why can dehorning adults be dangerous?need general anesthesia, they have a thin skull (fx risk), not enough skin for closure..
why are bandages recommended for dehorning?help heal and keep flies away
what are the two options for nerve blocking for a dehorning?(1) ring block (2) First injection half way between the lateral canthus of the eye and the lateral aspect of the horn, Second injection in the Middle of the globe at edge Of bony orbit