Food Ani. Med- Intro to Sm. Rumis 1

drraythe's version from 2016-04-29 14:52

Sheep and Goat farming + Food Safety

Question Answer
(mentioned in class) how are the goat and sheep industry performing?goats on the rise, sheep the same as they been for a while
To ensure product safety and quality, we need what three things?(1) Strict regulations on production and harvest practices (2) public education and assurance (3) animal welfare
regulations for food safety don't just encompass post harvest to consumer, they also include...there are pre-harvest regulations, herd health, herd management and nutrition of animals etc to consider
what kinda impact do quality assurance programs have?helps with marketing, the profit margin, provides a healthier and standardized product, and is better for the animals
what is FSIS? what does it do? (3 things)food safety inspection services is a govt agency responsible for... (1) testing our food supply to make sure it's safe. (2) It also initiates protocol to eval final product, (3) and can initiate the placement of protocols to eval the pre-harvest production (agri standards, EU regulations)
what do POSTharvest standards and guidelines focus on?they focus on the PRODUCT. They test it and standardize what is marketed and how it is harvested
what do PREharvest standards and guidelines focus on?focus on the RAW product. from birth to harvest, the enviro, the welfare, the nutrition, etc
what is HACCP? what is it?This is Hazards analysis critical control points. it is an analysis of potential production hazards and pin pointing places in production (called critical control points) where preventative measures can be taken
are HACCPs for pre or post harvest?both- have HACCPs to deal with hazards postharvest and those present due to pre-harvest production practices (ie drug residues)
(sakai quiz questions) What is the difference between Quality assurance and Quality control programs?A quality control program is a program where the aim is to just identify if there is a problem, like testing to see if there is a pathogen in the product. Quality ASSURANCE programs are more thorough, and set guidelines to stop the problems from happening in the first place, and if there IS a problem, to identify where the problem is coming from and how to fix it.
(sakai quiz questions) What is the definition of food safety?food safety is the collective conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food to prevent contamination and food-borne illnesses.
(sakai quiz questions) What role does FSIS (USDA Food Safety Inspection Service) play in food safety?FSIS plays a role in food safety by being responsible for testing the food supply to make sure it is safe. They can detect potentially dangerous contaminants and issue recalls for them.
(sakai quiz questions) What aspects of a meat production industry can a meat producers quality assurance program assist in; how can such a program be useful/be used in this industry? A meat producer's quality assurance program can assist the meat production industry by assuring that the industry is working to produce safe and wholesome products for the consumer, and also the program helps the industry itself by helping producers make production decisions and guide them through the production process.
(sakai quiz questions) What is the difference between Preferred Production Practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point HACCP? How are they related?HACCP is when you analyze potential production hazards and pinpoint the places in production (critical control points) where preventive measures can be implemented. It deals with production and and product safety issues. Preferred Production Practices represent critical points where problems MIGHT arise which can lead to dec quality and or safety of the product. It deals with the total production environment. They are related because PPP is BASED on the HACCP and both increase quality and safety of product.
what are the 7 principals of HACCP?(1) Conduct hazard analysis (2) Determine critical control points (3) Establish critical limits to control points (4) Establish monitoring procedures for control points (5) Establish corrective actions (6) Establish record keeping and document procedures (7) Establish verification procedures (see example slide 15)
what DOES and DOESN'T a HACCP do?DOESN'T: change the basics of what is performed (example: the prevention of cuts). DOES: assist in structuring a method of finding the hazard, checking on the hazard, and deciding what to do in the future to prevent another occurrence. It also provides framework of tested procedures whereby a producer can objectively evaluate current production systems, identify flaws, and put in place eval and corrective action plans prior to an occurrence of a problem (Preventing problems= preventing loss and improving profit) [basically she is saying that the farmers are probably already trying to prevent cuts, and HACCP doesnt change this, HACCP just tries to help them do it better]
what are preferred production practices?Critical points or areas where issues may arise and productivity lost
what are the 5 main areas for preferred production practices?(PPP= Critical points or areas where issues may arise and productivity lost). (1) herd health (2) management and cares (3) nutrition (4) record keeping (5) biosecurity

Terminology, breeds, restraint and housing (told to study on our own)

Question Answer
intact male/female sheep are? what about a castrated male?Ram, Ewe, and Wether respectively
what is a sheep tail like ?long tail hangs down
at what age is a lamb a lamb?male or female less than 1 year old
how long is sheep gestation?147d
average weight of adult sheep/ average weight of lamb100-200 lbs, 7-10 lbs (same for goats)
3 wool breeds of sheep?Merino, Romney and Lincoln
2 meat breeds of sheep?Suffolk and Dartmoor
2 hair breeds of sheep?Barbados and Africana
on average how much does a dairy sheep produce in a day?2L
what is a caprine tail like?short tail that points up
sheep vs goat: which is a grazer and which is a browser?sheep graze goats browze.
group of sheep vs group of goatsflock vs herd
male vs female intact goat? castrated male?Doe, buck. wether
baby goat is a kid, what is a yearling goat called?Doeling/Buckling
goat gestation?150d
what are two distinct head features on goats?beards and wattles (those hanging fleshy pully things)
why might you wanna castrate a goat early?prevent stinky beards
where are a sheep's specialized sebaceous glands? a goats?SHEEP: interdigital pouch, infraorbital pouch, inguinal pouch. GOATS: horn glands
4 black-faced sheep (starred covered in other card)*suffolk, *hampshire, oxford, Shropshire
list some white-faced sheep (starred covered in other card)*Merino, Corridale, Dorset, Leicester, Columbia, South down, Finn, Cheviot
what problems are suffolk and hampshire (black faced breeds) prone to?scrapie and spider lamb dz. Suffolk also get an abomasum emptying defect
what problems are merino sheep prone to?There is a lethal gene in polled merino sheep. They are also prone to genetic muscle defects.
what are the fiber breeds of goats/ what are the two types of fibers goats can produce?Mohair: produced by angora goats. Cashmere: the undercoat of MANY breeds
what are two meat breeds of goat?boer and kiko
boer goats are used for what? what problem are they prone to/where are they from?meat goats, prone to intestinal parasites (from south africa)
what are kiko goats used for? where are they from?meat goats, new zealand, fast growers
what is saanan goat used for? where are they from? what is characteristic about this breed?a milk breed from switzerland, they are a white haired breed with a pigmented udder, erect ears, and HIGH MILK YIELD
what is a french alpine goat used for? where are they from? what is characteristic about this breed?a milk breed from france and switzerland, which also provides a high milk yield but is HEAT TOLERANT
what is a Oberhasli goat used for? where are they from? what is characteristic about this breed?Switzerland (Used to be called swill Alpine), Distinctive coat pattern (Dark bay with dark points), and erect ears
what is a Newbian goat used for? where are they from? what is characteristic about this breed?dairy breed from england, they are a DUAL PURPOSE goat with a ROMAN NOSE and pendulous ears (helps with heat tolerance) and come in a multitude of colors. *prone to genetic mm dzs
what is a Toggenburg goat used for? where are they from? what is characteristic about this breed?dairy breed from switzerland, they are *the Smallest of the dairy breeds. brown with white face stripes and a white belly, white below carpi and hocks
what is a La Mancha goat used for? where are they from? what is characteristic about this breed?dairy breed from Cali, they have MINIMAL EXTERNAL PINNAE (elf ears= 2in long, gopher ears=1 inch long) tattoo under tail instead of in the ear
what is the mini breed of goat?pygmy
*what must you be careful of when restraining a sheep?DONT PULL THE FLEECE OUT
how might you know when they are charging?back up first
if you are working in a area where a bunch of sheep are all together, what is very important to keep track of?Know where the Ram is. put a bell on his collar or keep him separate from the rest
if you want to make a sheep back up, how can you do this?hold their chin up
what can you do to make a sheep more submissive?place a mask over their eyes
how do you move a sheep into a restraint position? (pic)you can kinda sit them down
how should and SHOULDN'T you restrain a GOAT?Goat's CAN'T SIT-- so don't try to sit them down like a sheep. You also CAN'T hold them by their horns, as they can break. Restrain them while standing, you can tie them to a fence or hold their head up.
If the G/S are kept in a barn, what are two things you will need to do to keep the situation hygienic?(1) ventilation is necessary (2) slatted footing/flooring (might not be ideal comfort)
what are some nasty things we avoid by keeping our barns hygienic?impacts occurance of mastitis and diarrhea
3 things you can provide to help with heat stressshade, water, salt blocks
for an indoor system, what would be considered adequate bunker space?S: 0.6m and G: 0.3m linear space
how do you know how much to feed a group?you feed based on the feeding requirements for the average individual of the group (Management requirements For the average of the group also)
explain how you determine how much pasture space you needfirst you see what the density of your livestock-- you can do this with a Live Stock Unit aka LSU. One Cow+calf or 4-6 ewe+lamb/doe+kid is one LSU. One hectare (100 meters by 100 meters, abbreviated "ha") of good pasture can house 1.5 LSU
housing--> what influences vitamin and mineral density?soil quality
housing--> 4 factors which (negatively) influence production?(1) overcrowding (2) overgrazing (3) poor pasture quality (4) pasture contamination (parasite load, toxic and un-edible plants)

Nutrition Part 1

Question Answer
what is the BSC scale for a small rumi?1 to 5
(what is the BSC scale for cattle?)HA! it depends!! Beef: 1-9, Dairy: 1-5
(what is the BCS scale for horses?)1-9
what are the four PRIMARY metabolic demands?growing, reproducing, production (meat/milk), climate
explain how the BCS differs between goats and sheep, and how to compensate for this differencesheep tend to store fat on their backs, and the BCS is based off of this. However, goats tend to store it on their abdomens, so you perform the BSC like you would for a sheep (looking at the back- more on this on another card) and then add another half point to the GOATS score
explain how to BCS a small ruminantdo it looking at the lumbar verts- should have some meat over the top, more meat, the better the BCS. Then you have SQ fat which fills in the triangle between the dorsal and xverse spinous processes (triangle in pic)
what should you know about age and BCS?age affects BCS, but you don't grade differently because of it
what's this BCS? 4/5
what's this BCS? 3/5
what's this BCS? 2/5
what's this BCS? 1/5
How does maintaining a herd in good body condition benefit the farmer? (4)(1) Larger and stronger animals (2) More resistant to disease (3) More able to produce (Better carcass quality-->better price per head, Higher milk yield-->more money generated per animal) (4) More able to REproduce
what are the 3 main ways we help animals to maintain good BCS?(1) feed them according to their NEEDS (2) manage their ENVIRONMENT in such a way that it does not add excess demand on them (3) protect them from DISEASES
what does rumen scoring tell us?It takes weeks for a BCS to change with feedings, so farmers are always behind the ball on if they are feeding the correct amount of calories. Combining BCS with rumen scoring lets them know if they are giving enough in the short term so they can adjust for their long term plan (since rumen scoring monitors feeding over past 6-8 hours). Rumen scoring is a valuable management tool for farmer to assess diet consumed, and Response of BCS to rumen score can help assess nutrition level of diet. For example, if they have a good rumen score, but their BCS says theyre too thin, the farmer will know they need to inc the caloric content of the food.
how long does it take BCS to respond to a change in feeding? how can we determine if the change was effective sooner?takes 3-4 weeks of good feeding to change BCS.