Food Ani. Med- Dairy production 2

wilsbach's version from 2016-04-22 21:10

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Question Answer
aside from calving interval ,what are 3 other measures of herd fertility?(1) 100 day calf rate (2) average days from calving to conception (3) average number of services per preg
good fertility management depends on what two things?(1) good conception rate (chance the cow being served gets preg) (2) good heat detection
fertility management depends on (1) good conception rate (2) good heat detection. conception rate depends mostly on what? heat detection depends on what? Which is easier to change?(1) Conception rate mostly has to do with quality of womb enviro and quality of embryo produced. difficult for us to alter bc mainly down to skill of the farmer. (2) good heat detection-- if you dont see it bulling (being in heat) then you cant serve her, you cant get her preg. Can be easily improved with advice and heat detection aids
which is in heat? one being mounted is in estrus (STANDING HEAT) and this is the most important sign of estrus
what is the most important sign of estrus?STANDING HEAT (allowing themselves to be mounted)
what is the best method of heat detection?stand and watch the cows for 20min 3xd!!
3 major things to look for in freshly calved cows?RFM, endometritis, ketosis
3 things to look for in cows not seen bulling? (not coming into estrus)anestrus, cysts, or normal
what time for pregnancy diagnosis to be done?4-6wk
2 things cows with abnormal cycles can be due to?cysts, anestrus
what is mastitis? what can result from mastitis? how can you reduce?mastitis= infection of the udder. Can result in anything from mild discomfort to toxic death. HUGE financial losses. Can be reduced by cleanliness and good management.
what problems can having a lame cow result in? how can you help avoid?Huge welfare issue, and financial loss issue. Hooves should be routinely trimmed. Lame cows: dont eat as much, wont milk as much, less likely to get preg, more likely to be culled
most lameness originates in...the FOOT
compare some noninfectious vs infectious causes of foot lamenessNONinfectious: penetrating wounds (rocks), solar bruising, solar ulcers, white line dz, interdigital fibromas, sand/grass cracks (cracks on outside of hoof). INFECTIOUS: foul in the foot/infectious pododermatitis (pretty sure this is footrot--usually fusobacterium necrophorum-->suppurative necrotic cellulitis--> painful lameness) , digital dermatitis (hairy heel warts- think it's caused by spirochete treponema, usually in wet environments)
how can you find out if there is lameness on the farm?start with locomotion scoring for all cows in the herd
if non-infectious cause of lameness in the foot, what can you do? If infectious?NON: alter foot trimming regime and environment. If INFECTIOUS: commence foot bathing protocol, abx in it to reduce case load, and formalin/CuSulfate in it to prevent spread/new cases.
how might looking at the back of a cow tell you if they are lame?flat back= not lame. Curved/hunched back= lame, esp if steps arent even in rhythm or weight bearing.
what does swollen hocks usually mean? what problems can it lead to? it also might be a sign of what?usually caused by chronic pressure from lying down on a hard bed, ie lack of bedding in the cubicle. Can also be complicated by course bedding (wood flakes). Can cause lameness if these swollen hocks get infected. CAN ALSO BE A SIGN OF MYCOTOXINEMIA
most important part of cow management is?NUTRITION
what does a cow do in 24hr?14hrs laying, 6hrs eating, 2hrs milking, 2hrs socializing
do we want the cows laying down?YES. more laying= more resting and ruminating= more milk and less lameness
things we can do/use to determine if nutrition is right?(1) milk yield (2) consumption (3) BCS (4) rumen fill score (5) dung score (6) butterfat and protein (ALL of these can be easily checked at a herd health visit)
Fast and easy way to do/remember BCS?PINCH SKIN BETWEEN TAIL HEAD AND HOOK: 1/5= like back of your hand if you pinched that. 2/5= like if you pinched your neck. 3/5= like your cheek. 4/5= like your tummy roll. 5/5 like your butt.
what is a dung score out of/ what are you looking at? optimum score?1-5, looking at how solid or watery the feces is. 3 is an ideal score
what is a rumen fill score out of, what are you looking at?1-5, looking at how full rumen is, score at same time every day at about in-between time of meals or before meals
what is the most important period in regards to nutrition?the transition period
what is the transition period? why do we care?the TP is from 2 weeks before calving to 2 weeks after calving. We care bc this is the most important time in regards to nutrition
what should BCS be like during the transition period (2wk before to 2wk after calving) and what probs will you see if above or below this BCS?want BCS to be between 2.5-3.5!! If too fat (>3.5) you will see probs like difficult birth, RFMs, milk fever, fatty liver, and ketosis in early lactation. If too thin (<2.5) you can have ketosis in early lactation.
you must maximize dry matter intakes in freshly calved cows and the best way to do this is..ensuring lots of feed space for each cow
9 aspects of the herd health plan?infertility, nutrition, parasites, infectious dz, production dz, lameness, mastitis, calf health+heifer rearing, biosecurity
need to remember: why is there a bigger need for management advice and monitoringless cows=>bigger yield=>greater stress=> hence need more mgmt