Food Ani. Med- Dairy production 1

drraythe's version from 2016-04-29 15:41

It's all about the white stuff

Question Answer
what is in milk?water, lactose/milk sugar, butterfat, protein, minerals (ash)
past decades, amount of dairy cows going down but production going up, meaning...avg yield going up--> more stress on cows--> need good mgmt more than ever
most common dairy breed?holstein (tall and thin, black and white)
pros and cons of holsteinGives LOTS of milk, butterfat, and protein. BUT difficult to manage- if not managed properly, will not eat enough, which will weaken their immune system and make them prone to dz
pros and cons of jersey cowstougher, lower yields but higher amounts of butterfat and protein. (better for cheese, cream, butter)
L one? R one? L: ayrshire. R: gurnsey
L one? R one? L: brown swiss. R: friesian
how to tell holstein vs friesian?friesian is shorter and fatter
what is a dry cow?been milking, gets preg, and then stop milking her (bc shes gonna need to build up colostrum)
3 types of heifers?heifer calf, yearling heifer, bulling heifer, 1st calf heifer
what is a bulling heifer?shes been cycling but now she is heavy enough to be mated
what is a first calf heifer?has had one, her first, baby
non preg cow is called?barren cow/ barrener
what is a "housed" farm management system?intensive, cows are inside whole time in a shed with all food brought to them- high input high output, potential high cow stress
what is a "mixed" farm management system?part of year outside grazing, then housed for the winter
what is a "new zealand" farm management system?extensive farming where cows spend how year outside low input, low output, potentially low cow stress
what makes an organic farm organic?use methods to preserve environment and promote biodiversity. Keep stocking rates lower and avoid some synthetic products (like ivermectin-- think of the dung beetles). Strict code of practice. allow cow access to outdoors, allow them to display natural bh. only organic feeds and no GM products. lower yields-->pay premium for this milk
in a housed/intensive farming system, how are the cows separated?dry in one shed, calfing in another.
why do houed/intensive farming cows have a higher yield?fed higher energy and protein mixed rations and cake
if all the cows lying down in the barn, prolly means they are...comfortable
when are the lowest yields in the new zealand system?winter
what type of grazing is used in the new zealand system? things to note about effectivity of this?ROTATIONAL grazing (move field to field)-- moved via cow tracks (paths) QUALITY OF TRACKS CAN IMPACT FOOT HEALTH (little stones can puncture sole)
how low is the grass grazed down before they cows are moved on a rotating field system? how do you know where the next best (lushest) field is to move them to?when the grass is 5cm or less, time to move them. Can use a plate meter to measure density of grass in a field.
How does a plate meter work?used to measure density of grass in a field--> Density is converted to amount of dry matter avail to cows which can be used for dietary calculation! This lets the farmer determine which field to move the cows to and how long they can be grazed in each field
what is a "grass wedge" graph? how is it made/ what can it be used for?use plate meter and measure all fields at beginning of the grazing season. then graph results from it= grass wedge. Helps plan cow movements to diff fields based on grass volume in each field, and can show the fields which are not yielding well
what are "flying herds"?farm which constantly brings their replacement cows from the outside sources, instead of rearing their own replacements. ((some farms use beef breed bull/semen and buy all replacements as preg/in-calf heifers or freshly calved heifers
how do most farms replace their old/sick cows?usually rear their own repalcements
aim is to have cow give birth how often?1 a year (once every 365 d)
what is different about the farms now-a-days?there are larger amounts of very large farms
what is a block calving herd? (what is the opposite alternative to this?)block=when they calve all the cows in the same time. Frame. Conversely, other farms have cows giving birth all year round to keep milk production level.
If there is a block calving herd (try to calf all cows at same time) what is the advantage to it happening in the spring? Fall?spring= make use of fresh, lush grass. Fall= less calving difficulty (bc moms a little thinner bc grass quality dec over summer) and better calf prices (or they can try to do spring and fall)
what dz is esp an issue if you need to buy in/borrow colostrum? johnes
If you want to have a bull for your dairy farm, what is best idea when getting one?buy a virgin bull
what are some "best practices" for buying in cows to prevent as much dz as possible?(1) buy from as few places as possible (2) buy from certified dz free farms (BVD, IBR, lepto, johnes) (3) if not a certified dz free farm, then at least from a farm on a dz reduction scheme (4) walk cows through foot bath on arrival to the new farm (most dz spread on feet) (5) vx!!! (6) QUARANTINE 4 weeks before introduction to the herd (7) dont forget the bull can spread dz- try to buy a virgin bull
how long to quarantine a new cow before introduction to the herd?4wk
when are dairy calves usually removed from mom?after 0-12hrs, up to 4 days on organic farms
how often are removed calves fed, and what are they fed?fed 2xd, with milk from mom, or waste milk (milk from sick/under treatment cows), bulk milk, milk powder
main aims to management of calves ishealthy, fresh air, warm and clean, keep feeding and drinking
***How much colostrum how fast for a newborn calf?4L in first 4 hours of life
what is a calf cake?everything they need pressed into a pellet
**ideal group size for calves from 1 week to weaning?group of 6
from week one, what should a calf's diet be like?milk feeding is slowly inc to match growth requirements, but also given alternative feed to start rumen developement
in winter what is good practice for calves from 1wk-weaning?calf coats
if feeding calves milk powder, be sure to...make sure right amount is mixed in!!
most common dz of pre-weaned calves? 2nd most common?#1 is diarrhea/scour, and pneumonia is the second most common. Also worry about navel/joint infections, an eye infections (no menace)
no matter what feeding system for your calf, the calf should have..permanent access to fresh clean water, clean straw, calf pellets/course mix, a dry bed, shelter, and lots of ventilation
what are diff times you can wean a calf?can wean at 6, 8,10, or 12wk
how can you speed up rumen maturation processfeed them more solid food earlier.
stages of rumen development (pic) what are the diff ages for the diff stages0-6wk milk is bypassing rumen. 6 weeks start to consume solid feed, and other factors encourage development of rumen wall. 12-16 weeks: post-weaning, rumen is functional. mature rumi has fully functional rumen
explain bucket vs teat systemsTry to do teat feeding! teat allows better use of closure of esophageal groove to bypass rumenoreticulum. Also easier to teach calves a teat based system. (costs more to gradually inc amount, keep at right temp, feed more than 2x/d)
***what should you absolutely know about a once a day bucket feeding system?IT IS ILLEGAL. FEEDING ONCE A DAY IS ILLEGAL.
pros and cons of an ad-lib warm or cold feeding system?basically all drinking from a big bucket of milk which is topped off with waste milk. IT can be warmed up. ad lib allows fast growing rates but there is high risk of dz spread. However, ad lib means lower dry matter intakes--> slower rumen developement and later weaning. Also more milk= more urine= wetter bedding= more dz
things to consider with automatic feederscan be very pricy, and have one system to 100 calves. 25 calves per feeding station. Some only do powder, others do combination. Might help get average first calving at 2 (earlier)
PROS vs CONS of automatic feedersPROS: low labor, fed little and often, feed intakes monitored, calves fed to individual needs, potential for high levels of performance. CONS: expensive machine, special building with power needed, need high standard of calf housing (lots of urine), inc humidity/straw bedding/penumina (more urine), large numbers of calves in one group (liek 6), all fe from same teat--> risk of cross protection
whar are the 2 types of milk powder you can feed?(1) SKIM milk: forms clot in rumen-->slow release--> dec scours. If acidified milk powder, reduces scours even further. (2) has veg protein. DOESNT form clot, so dont feed too much at once or you can cause scours
which milk powder can help reduce scours, and how?SKIM (as opposed to whey which has veg protein), bc forms clot in rumen--> slow release--> dec scours. Also if its acidified, more likely to clot, reduce chances even more.
pros vs cons of milk powder feedingPROS: cheaper, no dz spread, less scour. CONS: more labor to mix up, diff concentrations/temps can lead to scours. No natural local Abs to protect against rota in it :(
what dzs are pasteurizers good for preventing?reduce TB, johne's, salmonella, staph aureus (nasty, clingy type of mastitis from this), as well as reduce overall contamination of milk from parlor
how does pasteurization affect colostrum?actually improves it, not makes it worse!
***WHEN can calves be weaned? (not time range, but rather the way to know when it is appropriate)once they are eating >1kg dry matter/day
what age is the aim to calf a heifer at? why is this age optimum? what is the AVERAGE age?IDEAL=2yo (or less), this is optimum bc by the AVERAGE age (28mo/ 2.25 years), there is more fat in the birth canal leading to higher rates of dystocia. at 24 months will start earning sooner, he higher yielding, and live longer
weaned to calving down stage's main goal is...maximizing growth rates (so can calf earlier)
24mo calving vs 28mo calvinggive birth by 24mo: Give birth by 28mo:
*************TARGET WEIGHT WHEN YOU FIRST SERVE A HEIFER? (what age do you want this to be by?)385kg of bodyweight (126cm at withers)...unless a JERSEY, then its 230kgs(110cm)......ideally want to reach this 385/J230 weight by 13/14 months (bc add 9mo to that and you have the 24mo you want them to give birth by) [[ other numbers im not bothering to remember bc he told us what the important one is: want 0.85kgs a day growth rate, want 85kgs by 8wk and 240kgs by 8 months. want >50% conception rate for first service. want to serve 60% of heifers by 15mo.

Disease crap, most stuff, etc.

Question Answer
what vx has been proven to get improved heifer growth rate, and can help the farmers get their money back from the vx by the successful growth rate alone?when you ~vx against pneumonia
common dzs encountered in heifer rearing?pneumonia, worms/flukes/flies, lepto, BVD, summer mastitis, pink eye/IBK, blackleg, photosensitization
what is the huge thing we really hate about lepto on a dairy farm?lives in repro tract, dec fertility
what is the major problem with BVD on a dairy farm?can cause abortion!!
**********5 most important areas of vet management in the adult dairy herd?(1) fertility (2) mastitis (3) lameness (4) nutrition (5) youngstock NEED ALL THESE FOR GOOD HEALTH AND PRODUCTION OF HERD
the shorter the time between calvings, the greater...lifetime yield of the cow. This is determined in part by fertility
*****What is a calving interval? What is the ideal calving interval? what can the CI be used to measure?CI= the number of days in between calving. we want this to be 365d. This interval is worked out for every cow to provide an average which can act as a measure of herd fertility
*****what is a voluntary waiting period, how long is it?once a cow has calved, farmer will wait a certain amount of time before serving to a heat. This is usually 42**** days (heat can occur very early on after preg but not a very fertile heat. wait a bit= better fertility)
what is the cow bulling?bulling is when the farmer sees the cows coming into estrous
what is "serving" the cow?either AI or mate the cow with a bull
*what lowers the calving interval? why is lowering the calving interval good?the SOONER the cows become pregnant (shorter the breeding period), the lower the CI, and this is good because it inc their lifetime yield
what is the only part of the calving interval (time between two calvings) that the farmer can shorten?The breeding period is the only part of the calving interval they can shorten
how can you go about shortening the breeding period?good mgmt/nutrition to make sure cycling well with good embryos ***MOST IMPORTANT THING IS GOOD FEEDING, THIS AFFECTS QUALITY OF THE EMBRYOS
what does in calf mean?they are preg.
what is the 100 day calf rate?The is the % of cows in calf (preg) by 100 days in milk. This is the modern average of herd fertility (bc calving interval is retrospective)