Food Ani. Med- Cattle- Mastitis 3

drraythe's version from 2016-04-29 15:30

Environmental Pathogens

Question Answer
what are the major enviro. pathogens? minor?MAJOR: E coli, kelbsiella (big boys). MINOR: enterobacter, pseudomonas
what are the two coliforms?E coli and Klebsiella (the major ones)
when (Seaonsally) is E coli usually a prob and where is it found?hot summer and mid winter-- when cows are housed in poor conditions
where is klebsiella found in the enviro?common in hers who are bedded on shavings, sawdust, and compost
what body environment/condition can cause coliforms to be easily elim vs mult quickly?IF the immune system is strong they can get rid of it pretty quick. but i neut influx is delayed or if PMNs not fully functional, bact quickly mult
when are udders resistant to coliform invasion?quarters with preexisting high SCCs tend to be resistant
when do most cases of coliform mastitis happen (relative to walking cycle) and when might it be subclinical vs clinical?usually most cases start in late dry period, remain subclinical, and then become clinical after calving bc immune system compromised. (but can occur at any stage of lactation where immune system compromised)
whats the major problem that coliforms case?ENDOTOXEMIA
how do coliforms cause endotoxemia?the coliform quickly mult and die in mammary gland. mult and dying both cause release of endotoxin (LPS) from their cell walls. TNF-alpha is released and inflammatory cascade is initiated.
what are endotoxemia CSs like?basically due to release of tons of inflammatory mediators: fever, leukopenia OR leukocytosis, hypotension, coagulopathy, shock, DEATH.
what specifically are responsible for CSs of endotoxemia?nuclear transcription factors which produce inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and TNF.
what complications can arise from endotoxemia, and how?bacteremia and septicemia happen from endotoxemia--> hematogenous spread of bact to lungs and heart--> pneumonia and vegetative endocarditis
what is the hallmark of endotoxemia and endotoxic shock?altered vascular permeability via release of inflammatory factors Will see SHOCK, LUNG TISSUE DAMAGE, HGE
what kinda shock can endotoxemia cause?hemodynamic shock due to altered vascular permeability due to huge amounts of inflammatory cytokines being produced in response to LPS
Explain CSs of hemodynamic shock in Early, mid, and late stagesEARLY: anorexia, depression, mm fasciculation, fever, recumb, inc CRT (inc bc capillaries closed off to try to keep blood in important places) vascular permeability, bright red MM, scleral injection, big, soggy, slow moving capillares. MID: prolonged CRT, dark red to purple MM, 3rd space fluid retention, hypothermia, diarrhea. LATE: coagulopathy, obtunded, circulatory failure, mult organ failure, laminitis, abortion
CSs of coliform mastitis?can spontaneously resolve wo tx, some cases can be severe, may lead to death. Can lead to ACUTE endotoxemia. Dehydration, fever followed by subnormal temp, tachycardia/pnea, injected sclera, rumen atony
what will clinpath look like with a coliform mastitis?SEVERE neutropenia, margination of neuts, elevated fibrinogen, azotemia, possible hypocalcemia, (hyperglycemia?)
what will milk look like with coliform mastitis?serous fluid replaces milk-- looks like egg drop soup (ew)-- there will also be acute swelling of the gland
why are coliform mastitis pts polyuric?endotoxin causes ADH levels to dec and kidney is less responsive to its effects--> lots of urine with low USG. Very difficult to keep pt hydrated :(
what is the one good prognosis thing about an animal with coliform mastitis?enviro organisms DO NOT LEAD TO PERM FIBROSIS OF THE GLAND
how do you dx coliform bacteria mastitis (specific culture stuff)need MacConkey agar and the coliforms show up pink bc they are lactose fermentors
how do you manage endotoxemia/ how difficult is it?NO ONE SPECIFIC TX! best evidence for survival is early, aggressive cardiovascular resuscitation
how do you tx the mammary gland for coliform mastitis? what if there are systemic effects?MAMMARY: frequent milking (strip quarter every 4-6hrs) to elim toxins, inflammatory mediators and bact. if SYSTEMIC: systemic abx, used to prevent pneumonia and bacterial endocarditis. Whether or not systemic abx will be good for tx mastitis depends on the abx
things you can provide as supportive care for coliform mastitis? (4)NSAIDS (help with fever, pain, inflammation<--anti endotoxin effect), Vitamin C (bc antioxidant), transfaunation, Ca++ (if have hypocalcemia)
how can you help prevent coliform mastitis?CLEAN THE DAMN STALLS! Bed on SAND, not shavings or compost.
how can you make sure the cows stay standing so teat sphincter has time to close and not let coliform enviro pathogens in?feed them lol
what is a medical thing you can do to help prevent coliform mastitis?core antigen vx
explain core antigen vx procedure for coliform mastitisinitial dose at beginning on dry period. second dose 2-4 wk. third dose another 2-4 weeks
what is the "5 point control program" for coliform mastitis?(1) post-milking germicidal teat disinfectant (2) abx tx of all quarters at dry off (most cases occur in late dry period), (3) cull chronically infected cows (4) Prompt recognition and tx of clinical cases (5) proper use and maintainance of milking equipment

More mastitis stuff/ Udder edema/ blood in milk

Question Answer
most common form of mastitis in BEEF cattle?staph aureus
gangrenous staph aureus found most commonly in who (age) ?most commonly in HEIFERS (more than in old cows)
what might transmit gangrenous staph aureus to teat end?flies
small rumis most commonly get what pathogenic agent causing their mastitis?Staph aureus / gangrenous mastitis
if a small rumis clinical mastitis cannot be proven by culture, THEN what do you think the cause is?mycoplasma MYCOIDES <--NOT BOVIS!!!!
If the udder is hard as if there is mastitis, but the milk is appearing normal, what other dzs must you rule out?R/O CAE AND OPP
why might CAE/OPP masquerade as mastitis in small rumis?these 2 dzs cause fibrosis and agalactia, aka "hard bag"
why is intramammary tx of mastitis in camelids difficult? how do you do it? how common is mastitis in camelids?RARE in camelids. intramammary tx difficult bc each quarter has 2 distinct lobes--> must cannulate each orifice on the end of the teat to tx both lobes-- need 3.5 french tomcat cath.
is udder edema usually pitting or non-pitting?pitting
what will udder feel like on PE with edema?pitting edema, symmetrical and cool to the touch (how to tell from mastitis)...may travel along ventrum.
how problematic is udder edema?not considered a major problem, but can be difficult to apply the milking machine. Also can inc stress on suspensory lig
udder edema-- what will milk look like on strip cup?normal
main reason there is edema in udder (not specific) ?inc capillary hydrostatic pressure resulting from changes in mammary blood flow.
how can you tx udder edema?can use diuretics
how can you help prevent udder edema?fec NaCl intake, feed grass hay and corn silage to the dry cows
if the farmer says there is bloody milk after she calves, what could it be?colostrum can be light pink to brown in color
capillary rupture might occur as a result of _ or _ leading to blood in milktrauma or udder edema
how do you tx blood in milk/ how worried about calves are you?no tx needed- no risk to calves.
how commonly does mastitis--> bloody milk?occasionally severe mastitis will cause bloody milk. Larger vessels can become eroded from bacteria insult