Food Ani Med- Cattle- Bovine Resp. Dz Complex 2

wilsbach's version from 2016-04-26 18:40

Not Viral lol

Question Answer
what is the main bacteria implicated in calf diphtheria (necrotic laryngitis)?Fusobacterium necrophorum
Calf Diphtheria (Necrotic Laryngitis)--> what is the pathogenesis of this dz?Laryngeal damage --> Ulceration --> Colonization (Fusobacterium necrophorum) of the laryngeal cartilages --> Inflammation -->Stertor --> Trauma --> Further damage
at what age is calf diphtheria most common?3 – 18 months of age (24 months).
if you saw this, what would you think it is? calf diphtheria (necrotic laryngitis) (said in class all abscesses in mucosa and cartilages)
does Calf Diphtheria (Necrotic Laryngitis) cause inspiratory or expiratory dyspnea, what is the sound you would describe it as?causes Honking= Inspiratory dyspnea w/Loud Stertor.
what are the clinical signs of Calf Diphtheria (Necrotic Laryngitis)?Moist, Productive, Painful cough. Depression, anorexia, & fever (>105 – 106 o F). Head / neck extended with salivation & painful swallowing. Fetid odor from breath. Honking= Inspiratory dyspnea w/Loud Stertor
tx for calf diphtheria?Antimicrobials & NSAID’s
Pulmonary Hypertension (Brisket Disease)--> what causes this problem/ what is the pathogenesis?abrupt change to a high altitude--> hypoxic vasoconstriction--> pressure overload to R ventricle. (worsened with locoweed ingestion, possible genetic predisposition)
what is this? pulmonary hypertension/ brisket dz (R sided ventricular overload--> heart fails backwards so there is edema in the body!)
what are the CSs of brisket dz/ pulmonary hypertension? Brisket, Ventral, & Sub-mandibular Edema. Jugular distention & Venous pulses. Dyspnea & Tachypnea. +/- cardiac murmurs from tricuspid insufficiency or a pulmonic valve ejection murmur. (right sided valves!)
how do you tx brisket dz?remove from altitude
on necropsy of brisket dz, what will you see? Straw colored pleural and pericardial fluid that is transparent
Atypical(Acute) Interstitial Pneumonia is an acute resp syndrome characterized by what 2 things?acute pulmonary edema & emphysema.
describe the Acute & Chronic Manifestations of Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia(1) ACUTE: lungs fill the thorax and fail to collapse: lungs are firm on palpation, there is diffuse pulm edema, and air filled bullae. (2) CHRONIC: secondary bact infections--> cranioventral consolidation (bact like cr vent!! remember!!) and suppurative inflammation
Atypical interstitial pneumonia clinical signs? Nonspecific & mimic anaphylaxis. Dyspnea, Tachypnea, & Expiratory grunt. +/- Subcutaneous crepitus noted over dorsum (neck, withers, lumbar).Appear within several days of a change in diet (pasture change) Open mouth breathing with an extended head & neck. Abducted elbows (pointing out so chest has more room to expand)
prog of atypical interstitial pneumonia?Usually die within 2 – 3 days of clinical signs
so BRSV can cause SQ emphysema-- what nonviral dz in this section can cause emphysema as well?Atypical interstitial pneumonia
Atypical interstitial pneumonia (AIP) cause is unknown but there are a few proposed theories, such as:(1) Choke (2) Hypersensitivity (grossly similar to anaphylaxis but microscopically different) (3) allergens (4) Toxins (gasses: Silo gasses, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Zinc Oxide) (5) Parasites – Lung worms infestation (Resembles anaphylaxis or acute hypersensitivity) (6) Fog Fever in cows on lush new growth pasture. (7) Clostridial endotoxins ( Damage the capillary endothelium) (8) Moldy sweet potatoes have be used to induce lesions experimentally (9) Purple Mint (Perilla frutescens) (10) Kale, Rape, Turnip Tops, Perennial Rye Grass (Grass Staggers), Endophyte infected straw (Acremonium lolii). (11) acidosis
explain "fog fever"/ the pathogenesis of cows on lush new growth pasture(proposed cause of AIP) Ingestion of D / L Tryptophan --> Converted to 3 methyl indole by rumen microbes (lactobacilli) --> AIP (24 – 36 hours) --> Necropsy lesions.
which gasses might cause AIP? Silo gasses, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Zinc Oxide
what plants might be implicated in cause of AIP? Moldy sweet potatoes (experimentally), purple mint, Kale, Rape, Turnip Tops, Perennial Rye Grass (Grass Staggers), Endophyte infected straw (Acremonium lolii).
explain the theory on how acidosis might lead to AIPacidosis leads to Increased populations of lactobacilli in the rumen. Mortality is highest in the summer & fall for feeder cattle (End of feeding period). Exclusive to finishing diets.
if you cannot dx other causes of diffuse pneumonia, what might you want to think of?Parasitic Pneumonia (Verminous pneumonia)
is parasitic pneumonia more common in cattle or small rumi?small rumi
Parasitic Pneumonia (Verminous pneumonia)--> which 2 assholes in cattle?Dictyocaulus viviparus, Ascaris suum
Parasitic Pneumonia (Verminous pneumonia)--> which 3 assholes in small rumi? Dictyocaulus filarial, Protostrongylus rufescens, Muellerius capillaris
how do you dx Parasitic Pneumonia (Verminous pneumonia)?Baermann test or Transtracheal Wash
aspiration pneumonia in cattle most commonly occurs when? (when else might you see it?)poor placement of a stomach tube or esophageal feeder. :( may also see when: severe stage 3 milk fever, laryngeal paralysis, Downer, or Ruminant under General Anesthesia.
what affects does aspiration pneumonia have on the lungs? (what CS can this result in?)Causes a necrotizing pneumonia that may progress to pleuritic. (bad breath)
prog of aspiration pneumonia? Poor prognosis with rapid death is typical
tx of aspiration pneumonia?MILD cases are treatable. Broad spectrum antimicrobials, NSAIDs
Metastatic pneumonia (Vena Cava Syndrome)-> what age/who is most affected? Cattle over 1 year of age (typically dairy cows)
****hallmark sign of Metastatic pneumonia (Vena Cava Syndrome)?**** Hallmark sign is hemoptysis (Pathognomonic)
presenting signs of metastatic pneumonia (vena cava syndrome)?Weight loss, anorexia, thoracic pain (might resemble hardware dz) Fever, Tachycardia, Tachypnea, Expiratory dyspnea. May hear grunting / groaning & wheezes over the entire lung field. ****Hallmark sign is hemoptysis (Pathognomonic)
explain the cause/pathogenesis of metastatic pneumonia (vena cava syndrome)2* to rumenitis from rumen acidosis--> Translocation of rumen bacteria to the liver (abscesses)--> Liver abscesses rupture--> fragments of abscess "metastasize" to Ca vena cava--> septic emboli shower the lungs--> lung abscesses. The erosion of pulmonary vasculature and abscess rupture leads to hemoptysis.
prog of metastatic pneumonia (vena cava syndrome)? Case fatality rate is normally 100%
how can you prevent metastatic pneumonia (vena cava syndrome)?prevent rumen acidosis
Bovine Tuberculosis: how would you describe this dz? (chronic or acute, suppurative or granulomatous?)Chronic, granulomatous
what causes bovine tuberculosis? can anyone else get this? What part of the body is affected? Mycobacterium spp. (M. bovis in cattle, M. avium (poultry), M. tuberculosis (people).-- this dz can occasionally infect other species. Affects the LUNGS.
you do a necropsy and you see these icky granulomatous lesions on the lungs. what is your first guess? Bovine tuberculosis (most likely mycobacterium bovis.)
how would you decribe the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis? how resistant is it to enviro?Mycobacterium bovis is a G+ acid-fast bacilli. Highly enviro resistant, as well as resistant to many disinfectants and a lot of abx. (Mycobacterium avium have survived for more than four years in poultry lot soil, in cages, and in sawdust.)
*what is very important to know about dx of bovine tuberculosis?Is it hard to dx this based on CS, and don't see CSs in the early stages. **he said in class its super important to know that only govt regulatory ppl can say that it is a positive case and that you should be calling them, yo
CSs of bovine TB?*CSs dont show up till later stages! Hard to dx! Will see Emaciation, lethargy, weakness, anorexia, low-grade fever, and pneumonia (Chronic, Moist cough). Lymph nodes may also be enlarged.
In the United States, the two most common methods of introduction of TB into a herd are:(1) Purchase of or exposure to infected cattle (2) Exposure to infected free-ranging wildlife (Deer, Elk. Badgers).
How/ through what means is TB spread? Where is the risk of exposure greatest? Mycobacteria is found in the saliva & spread through airborne particles, water sources, Urine, Manure, Feed bunks, etc. Also unpasteurized milk from infected animals. The risk of exposure is greatest in enclosed areas, such as barns with poor ventilation.
how do you dx TB?Diagnosis by Tuberculin Skin Test= Caudal Fold Test in cattle.
how do you tx TB?There is no treatment for cattle, Eradication is the goal. Reactors are quarantined and retested by USDA veterinarians. Positives are isolated and sent to approved slaughter plants. Then trace back measures are instituted.

being a doc, doc

Question Answer
what are the fields of auscultation for moos?Caudodorsally= Rib #11... Caudoventrally= Middle of #9... Ventrally= Level of the olecranon. And don't forget the trachea, dickbutt
normal resp rate for bovine? (ovine? Caprine? camelid?)BOVINE: 12-36. (Caprine= 15-40. Ovine= 12-72 (brick says 30-72). Camelid= 10-30)
what are normal lung sounds called?vesicular sounds
what causes wheeze sounds? Musical (Whistling & Squeaking) tone caused by narrowing of the airway.
what causes crackles (rales) in the lungs?Fluid in airways. Sudden popping open
what causes a friction rub sound?Squeaking / grating sounds of the pleural linings rubbing together. (think fibrinopleuritis)
what is stridor/ what causes this sound? May be heard without a stethoscope. Inspiration or throughout.(Common with laryngeal obstruction)
what might cause a lack of sound or muffled sounds?Lack of open airway, Abscess, Effusion.
antemortem sampling usually occurs when? what are the samples targeting?Acutely sick animals that have failed to respond to treatment. Samples should target secondary infections. Samples from animals showing typical signs from the outbreak.
sample submission should contain what stuff? (things to consider in dx)Age of affected animals, Time of onset (how long since arrival). Environment (feedlot, pasture, confinement). Morbidity & Mortality. Duration that animal has been in the herd. Clinical signs & sequence of onset. Treatments & response. Common factors. Any recent changes (environment, feed, housing, group, etc). Vaccination history. Biosecurity (Quarantine). Your Differential Diagnosis.
what is an antemortem test you can use to help dx URT BRD, how useful is it?Nasopharyngeal / Nasal Swabs. This is good for dx of URT dz (there have been reports that culturing LRT ( Mannheimia haemolytica and Mycoplasma bovis ) pathogens from it is useful tho)
Transtracheal Wash / Bronchoalveolar Lavage--> what is this good for? What is important you do? how do you do it? Cytology provides differential diagnosis for viral, bacterial, parasitic, or fungal infections. can do Culture, PCR, & IHC on fluid samples. Aseptic technique is very important!! Restraint and Local Anesthesia is important (Cross tie). Use sterile saline warmed to body temperature. 2 - 60cc syringes for feeder cattle & 2 - 20 – 30 cc syringes for calves & small ruminants.
what should you be sending for a post-mortem testing?Ideal to send live animal for full diagnostic work up. (Untreated animals in the early phase of sickness- Chronics may be of some value through ID of causative organism by the lesions). Samples: 3 – 4 fixed, 5mm thick sections from margins of affected areas. 2 – 6 fresh, 6 x 6 x 6cm sections from margins of affected areas. 3 – 5 cc serum. Also send in: Multiple lymph nodes (tracheal, mesenteric). Fixed ear notch (1cm x 1cm). Fixed Ileum – 2 – 3 cm long. Fresh and fixed liver, spleen, kidney.
BRDC Prevention: what are the 2 areas of emphasis? (which is most important?)(1) Management – The most important. (2) Vaccination
prevention through management: do what?Eliminate / Reduce Stress. Early Detection of BRD. Keep cattle from multiple sources separate. Preconditioning. Provide feed and water. Avoid Overcrowding.
you can vx for what agents implicated in BRD? There are many combinations of vaccines available to aid in the prevention of BRD. They include IBR, BVDV, BRSV, PI3
Vaccine labels mean diff things! if vx label says " For the prevention of infection" what does this mean?Must prevent All colonization & replication
if a vx label says "As an aid in the reduction and control of disease " what does this mean?Reduce severity or duration, or delay the onset of disease.
if _________% are affected, tx the whole group> or= 10%
*why should all tx of BRD last more than _________ days?7 days!!! Bc It takes ~ 7 days for the damaged mca (mucociliary apparatus) to recover enough to produce a decent mucociliary reflex. Therefore all treatment should last >7 days