Food Ani. Med- Bovine- Musculoskeletal Disorders (Lameness) 3

wilsbach's version from 2016-03-20 22:39

Other causes of lameness

Question Answer
If you see this, what nerve do you think is damaged? what associated prob might be there? This is femoral nerve damage. Might see luxating patellas
Bull presented for foot trim. Following release from the tilt table, Bull collapses when stepping forward on his left front. what nerve do you think is damaged? Radial Nerve Paralysis
2 types of stifle injury?(1) Cranial Cruciate Rupture (2) Patella Luxation
how do you dx cr cruciate rupture? how do you tx?DX: Moderate – severe lameness., Cranial Drawer ? TX: Surgery?
how do you DX/TX patellar luxation?DX: Able to rotate knee cap out of patellar groove. TX: sx?
Hip Luxation / Subluxation-- WHO is at most risk for this? what are some situations where a hip might be luxated?Happens in Fresh cows a lot. They are often Weak (hypocalcemia, neuropathy, myopathy) cows that are struggling to stand on poor footing. This can also occur as a mounting injury.
Hip Luxation / Subluxation--> if it dislocates, where does it end up in comparison to the normal location?Typically relocate dorso-cranial
Hip Luxation / Subluxation--> which way does the affected limb rotate?rotates outward
what landmarks can you use to see if the hip is normal or luxated?normally, triangle formed by the tuber coxae, greater trochanter, & tuber sacrale. Rectal Palpation may help with Dx.
how do you tx a hip luxation/subluxation?Sedation--> traction
prog of adult with hip luxation/subluxation?Adults have a very guarded to poor prognosis that worsens with time. >24 hours= Grave Prognosis
prog of young animals with a hip luxation/subluxation?Young Animals have good prognosis early
how do you tx a young/light animal with a hip luxation?Ehmer Sling in lighter weight animals (Camelids, Small Ruminants, Calves.) can try hobbles to keep it in normal location
Coxofemoral Luxation--> what does the leg look like (position)back and rotated out
Spinal Cord Injury--> common in who? due to what? Common injury in male camelids (predators)
cervical spinal cord injury will show what clinical signs?Cannot maintain sternal recumbency. Remain lateral. Cervical spinal lesion proximal to C4 Unable to lift head when lesion side is up.Raise head slightly when lesion side is down.
what is limb tone like in a cervical spinal cord injury?normal to dec
what things are NORMAL/INTACT with a cervical spinal cord injury?Sensory function is intact. Hind limb reflexes intact
explain anatomy, location of lesion, reflexes, gait and tone of Upper Motor Neuron Lesions (UMN)?anatomy: Cell bodies within the brain, Axons terminate @ synapses in brain or spinal cord. Lesion: cr to origin of spinal n. or limb being tested. Reflexes are normal to increased. You might see Ataxia or weakness, +/- increased muscle tone
explain anatomy, location of lesion, reflexes, gait and tone of Lower Motor Neuron Lesion (LMN)?Anatomy: Cell body in the nuclei of the Cranial n. of brainstem or ventral gray matter of spinal cord, Axons project beyond CNS. Lesion @ level of reflex arc or peripheral n. Decreased spinal reflexes. Ataxia & Moderate to severe weakness. Decreased muscle tone, Rapid muscle atrophy
what result on a withers pinch test would indicate there might be back trauma?failure to ventroflex
ddx for back trauma if they have a stiff or arched back?peritonitis
how do you tx back trauma?Stall rest & NSAIDS
CSs of back trauma?Recumbency, Difficulty in ambulation, Stiff or arched back
what do you do if a fx is distal? proximal?Distal= Cast & Stall Rest. Proximal= refer
what is the Gastrocnemius necessary for? Rising & weight bearing relies on an intact gastrocnemius & associated structures. ( Muscles, Tendons, Tuber calcaneus.)
tx for ruptured gastroc? prog?tx no recc-- grave prog.
whats going on here? Gastrocnemius Rupture-- no tx, grave prog (dropped hock)
how do they get spastic paresis? Inherited (Elso heal)
what is spastic paresis? who is prone to this? Asymmetric spasticity and hypertonia or rear limbs. Cattle and pygmy goats
when do they get spastic paresis? (age)Onset at 3wks-1yr
where in the body does spastic paresis show up? Spastic contraction of gastrocnemius mm. Straight stifle joint
how would you describe the gait of spastic paresis Pendulum movement of bac leg (bc Spastic contraction of gastrocnemius mm. Straight stifle joint )
tx for spastic paresis?No treatment
what is Spastic Syndrome? what age is affected? which breeds are affected? CAuse? Periodic spasticity of cattle. Affects mature cattle 3-7 years of age. Both sexes equally affected. Holstein & Guernsey overrepresented. Unknown etiology ( May be inherited autosomal-dominant gene )
clinical signs of spastic syndrome? tx? Intermittent spastic contractions of the muscles in back, neck, legs. Usual presentation includes cow “kicking” one leg out behind her for several minutes, then it stops. Can occur in both back legs. no tx.


Question Answer
what is AST's name, where does it come from (is it mm specific?), what is its half life? Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Not muscle specific: Sk. Muscle, myocardium, liver, RBCs. t1/2= 7-10d
What is CKs name, what does it indicate if you see it, how strongly does it react to the thing it indicates, and what is its half life?Creatinine Kinase, it is an Indicator of muscle damage (necrosis), and increases QUICKLY in response to it. t1/2 is short (~2 hours).
in there is inc CK and AST, what does it likely indicate? Recent myonecrosis.
if CK is persistently high, what does it mean?ongoing myonecrosis
if there is Increased AST & Decreased or Steady CK, what does it mean?Resolving myonecrosis
for Recumbent Animals, you should perform what two kinds of exams on both sides of the animal?Perform neurologic and orthopedic exam on both sides of the animal. (and serum chem)
what are the "5 Ms" which might cause a downer cow?Mastitis, Metritis, Metabolic, Musculoskeletal, Misc
Mastitis from toxic causes can cause a downer cow... what are 4 main agents (which is commonly a prob in heifers?)E coli, klebsiella, Enterobacter, Staph aureus in heifers
most common cause of toxic metritis leading to a down cow?E coli
6 metabolic reasons you could have a down cowHypocalcemia, Hypokalemia, Hypomagnesemia, Hypophosphatemia, Pregnancy Toxemia, Metabolic Acidosis (note they are all hypo)
3 misc reasons you could have a down animal?(1) spinal Lymphosarcoma (2) malnutrition (3) meningeal worm (camelids)
which two nerves, if paralyzed, can cause a down animal?obturator or sciatic
What are the benefits of a float tank for down animals? What condition is it very good for? what are conditions you SHOULDN'T use it for? what other probs with this therapy are there? Water allows animal to maintain it’s own weight. Great for obturator nerve paralysis. Deadly for cervical fractures. If cow is very septic and weak…not a good choice. Be aware of hypothermia & mastitis.
If you want to use a sling for a down animal, what should you be cautious of? How long should they be in the sling?Position correctly so that you do not create excess pressure. Only leave in for short periods of time…never unattended
what are hip lifts/how are they used?Attaches to tuber coxae, Lifted with tractor or chain pulley
what is Compartmentalization Syndrome?Muscle damage due to compression on the large muscles from being down for extended periods of time. ( Down for 4 – 6 hours in the same position.)
how long will an animal be down before it is considered a humane issue and euthanasia is considered?down for 24hrs with no improvement


Question Answer
what is black leg caused by? (describe the agent a little) Clostridium chauvoei: a Gram positive , Anaerobic Rod-shaped bacillus
where does clostridium chauvoei cause/where does it like to live?black leg (chaufer needs both legs to do his job) Found in soil & intestinal tract of ruminants. Spores are usually dormant
what is the problem caused by clostridium chauvoei? Why does this occur?(black leg) Gangrenous myositis. Happns bc Latent spores proliferate in muscle (anaerobic).
what age usually gets black leg, and what usually triggers it?Usually observed in animals 6 moa – 2 yoa. Occurs at time of stress (Trucking, herding, handling)
clinical signs of blackleg?Gangrenous myositis. First clinical sign might be death. Also see Crepitation, Muscle swelling, fever, depression, sudden death
What do you think happened here? blackleg/ clostridium chauvoei
what will blackleg look like on necropsy?Linear hemorrhages within the affected muscles. Histopathology of skeletal muscle reveal severe, diffuse necrosis & inflammation. Large areas of emphysema & edema.
how do you diagnose blackleg?(clostridium chauvoei) basically, a bunch of dead animals. Clin. path is not very helpful bc Non-specific increase CK, AST.CBC usually indicates severe inflammation &/or toxemia. Increased fibrinogen, WBC’s.
****Drug of choice for clostridial infections in ruminants?PENICILLIN
how do you tx blackleg?Open up muscle to create aerobic environment. Give Penicillin!!!! (Drug of choice for clostridial infections in ruminants.) and provide supportive care.
how can you prevent blackleg?Multivalent vaccines available: Give at 2mo, booster every 3-4weeks, then an annual booster. If there is an outbreak, Booster everyone 2 mos. & older
3 ways spores get into the system?IM injections, trauma, migration from GI tract
Malignant Edema is caused by what? where does it usually live/how does it usually get into the body? Clostridium septicum (exSEPTIcumally strange to have edema as a clostridium prob), Found in soil.Usually enters body via wound. Clinical signs can occur after dystocia
what are the clinical signs of malignant edema (what causes it again?)(Clostridium septiccum) HENCE: think septicemia! You will see depression, loss of appetite, fever, can be recumbent. Will also see Wet doughy swelling around the wound. Usually extends from vulva down one leg.
how dangerous is clostridium septicum (whats this cause again?)malignant edema, Death frequently occurs in 24 to 48 hours
what does a clostridium septicum wound look like?Necrotic, darkened, foul-smelling areas under the skin, often extending into muscle. Very little, if any, gas is associated with the swellings.
how do you tx malignant edema?(CLOSTRIDIUM septicum) clostridium= PENICILLIN also debride wounds and provide supportive care. There is also a multivalent vx


Question Answer
what causes LEUKOENCEPHALOMYELITIS?Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis virus (CAE)
what is the primary mode of transmission of CAE (leukoencephalomyelitis)? Primarily mode of transmission through ingestion of colostrum & milk
Clinical signs of leukoencephalomyelitis?(aka CAE) Slowly progressive rear limb weakness / ataxia b/t 1 & 4 moa. Goats are bright and alert --> ultimately become recumbent. Similar clinical picture has been observed in adult CAE.
what is the etiological agent of CAE? Lentivirus= NON-oncogenic. CAE LOVES Macrophages.
which cell does CAE like?macrophages
is neoplasia associated with CAE?no, this lentivirus is non-oncogenic
CAE is closely related to..?OPP
CAE clinical signs-- what are the 3 major groupings of clinical signs?(1) Neurologic Dz (2) Arthritic Dz (swollen carpi, crepitus) (3) Mastitic Dz
explain the clinical signs of the neurological dz associated with CAE (leukoencephalomalacia)(1) locomotor effects: Begins w/ rear limbs, paresis progressing to paralysis. Happy goats though. (2) CNS signs: Later in dz course, see blindness, nystagmus, vestibular signs, and facial nerve paralysis
3 major rule outs for CAE?(1) spinal trauma (2) spinal abscess (3) P. tenuis (meningeal worm)
what will spinal tap results look like for CAE?80-200 cells/microliter, mononuclear, elevated protein.
if you see a goat with its back legs down, think..CAE/leukoencephalomyelitis
Can CAE be transmitted horizontally? vertically?vertically through colostrum/milk, horizontal transmission can take place between adults with constant exposure
how common is CAE in the US? how common are false negatives/why?>80% of U.S. herds have positive animals.( Serologic conversion does not necessarily indicate clinical disease) Prolonged time from infection to seroconversion often results in goats with leukoencephalomyelitis being negative on test.
(dont think hes asking dx stuff but..) how to dx CAE?AGID titer or ELISA on whole blood, CSF tap, necropsy