Food Ani. Med- Beef Industry 2

wilsbach's version from 2016-04-23 21:11


Question Answer
basic nematode life cycle?eggs shed in manure--> 1st and 2nd stage larvae mature in cow pat--> 3rd stage larvae crawl up on grass where they are eaten--> immature worms develop in gut and later mature, produce eggs
when (seasonally) are gutworms a problem?2nd half of grazing season (mid july onward). some can OVERWINTER (like ostertagia) in gut and start growing following spring when its warmer. So might wanna deworm after housed at end of first season
what probs do gutworms cause?watery diarrhea and weightloss.
can animals be immune to gut worms?well develop immunity after 2 grazing seasons as long as they are exposed
lungworms cause what problems in what stage of the animals rearing?BRONCHITIS and PNEUMONIA in 1st grazing season animals-- develop harsh dry cough and trouble breathing. Seen in late summer/early fall (july-sept) once enough worms are present.
what worms have a vx against them?lungworms- huskvac- 2 doses 4 weeks apart to calves over 8 weeks old
can you have immunity to lungworms?immunity after 1st encounter
liver fluke lifecycle
what probs does fasciola hepatica cause?lives in bile ducts and causes their calcification/sclerosis--> reduced liver fxn
**when in the grazing season do you see CSs of liver flukes, and what are the CSs?builds up through grazing season, see signs towards the end. Liver fxn inc compromized-->weight gain dec, can see ASCITES/BOTTLE JAW in severe cases
**what is infectious stage of liver flukes and when are they seen?immature stages infectious, seen in aug/sept
**how do you dx liver flukes?mix poop from ten animals, look for fluke eggs. usually only from DEC ONWARD. (positive for one is positive for all)
3 groups of wormers, and the colors they are?(1) AVERMECTINS, clear. (2) LEVAMISOLE, yellow. (3) BENZIMIDAZOLES, white
3 diff routes you can give dewormers?oral (drench or bolus), injectable (SQ), pour on (along back)
for liver flukes, what drug do you use with that route?CLORSULON, injectable from aug to dec. Can use Zanil any other time
*which dewormer type cant be used in organic systems?avermectins
MOA of avermectins? Effective against what parasites? is there resistance?MOA: affect parasite nerve transmission (if you remember OD is neuro signs you can remember this easier), Effective against nematodes (not effective for trematodes/cestodes), can prevent re-infection for up to 21 days. CANT BE USED IN ORGANIC SYSTEMS!!!! there is no registered resistance in cattle :D
MOA of levamisole? effective against what parasites? is there resistance?MOA: affects parasite nerve transmission, good for gutworms (nematodes) and lungworms (nematodes). Also restores reduced T-cell function. Resistance found in cattle :(
MOA of benzimidazoles? effective against what parasites? is there resistance?MOA: affects parasite metabolism. Good for roundworms (nematodes), can be used for some flukes at a double dose. TERATOGENIC IN EARLY PREG. MOST resistance to these.
only deworm if how many EPG?>30epg
if you aren't sure how to dose (dewormed) them bc of their weights, what should you do?weigh biggest, dose based on that (dont want too little, will inc resistance)
If you are drenching them, how do you make sure it all gets swallowed?dose over back of tongue (torus linguae i think)
dont use a pour on when..animal is wet or its about to rain
you want to deworm...when do you move them to a diff field?wait a week before moving to fresh grazing
who dont you treat with dewormer?older, immune animals
how to deworm new animalsquarentine, treat with yellow wormer (levamisole) and then a white wormer (benzimidazole) a day later. Release onto grazed pasture 2d later
flies cause what problems?spread pink eye, mastitis
warble fly does what?damages hide
what drug to help control flies? what is economical threshold for tx?100-220 horn flies per head is economical treatment threshold. Most fly repellants are pyrethroids
when are warble flies/ when are the lumps? how can you help this prob?see flies May-july, see lumps december onwards. Ruin hide for leather production. They can all be removed from skin and destroyed to prevent recurrance. arsenical dips also kill them.
what is a sign there is lice? what is lice a sign of?cling to hair-->pruritus, alopecia. Sign that animal in poor condition. Tx with dust or pour on.
warts only a prob if...on udder or going to market
ringworm caused by? tx with what? prevention? can mean what?caused by trichophyton verrucosum, can try vx to tx/prevent, tx with imaverol(enilconazole), can be sign of poor nutritional status. can reduce with exposure to UV light or copper.
photosensitization can be caused by eating...lantana, showy crolataria
CS chokehx of eating apples/potatoes, drooling excessivly, head extended, depressed, cant pass stomach tube (DONT FORCE), bloat, regur water/saliva.
how to tx chokeinject buscopan, try to dislodge with stomach tube (NOT TOO HARD, CAN DAMAGE ESO), leave for 24hr, repeat buscopan, if bloated insert trochar. If blocked for >2d, give fluids to avoid dehydration and acidosis