Food Ani. Med- Beef Industry 1

drraythe's version from 2016-04-29 15:44


Question Answer
biggest producer and consumer of beef?USA
why does beef usually lose popularity? gain?lose: health concerns. gain: more money, more beef
big prob with the beef industry?Lots of energy and land needed to make beef, and dont get much energy out of the system
how does beef industry affect the environment?big water polluter, greenhouse gas emission (more CO2, NO, and methane than either transportation or industry)
what is a heifer calf?female under 1yr age
what is a yearling heifer?female between 1-2yr old
what is a in-calf heifer?female preg for first time
what is a cow?female that has had a calf
what is a bull calf?an intact male calf
what is a young bull?entire male at 16mo (1yr 4mo....random..)
what is a bull?sexually mature entire male
what is a steer?castrated male animal
what is a yearling steer?castrated male calf between 1 and 2 years old.
what is a finished steer/ fed animal?aka bullock aka steer, but can be a female over a year old too. Fed animal just means ready for slaughter- can be female too.
breed? Aberdeen Angus (most common)
breed? Hereford (WHITE FACE)
breed? Gelbvieh (Gelp-vee)
breed? Limousin
breed? Simmental (looks like hereford but face isn't entirely white)
breed? Devon (his fav)
what is a cow and calf operation?breeding herd of cows that produce calves, all of which are destined for beef production
when does preconditioning occur?6-8mo old, between calving and weaning. Preconditioning includes castrating, dehorning, vaccinating, deworming...
what is preconditioning?process of preparing young cattle for feedlot. Seen as good mgmt practices (like vx), that maximize feed conversion and daily weight gain. Aim: minimize stress and dz
what are ppl willing to pay a premium for preconditioned animals?faster growing (better ADG aka average daily gain), better feed converters, less likely to get ill/ die (have a lower "pull rate"), ready to kill sooner
what is a pull rate?# animals that have to be pulled out of herd to be treated and looked after (high pull rate= high dz in herd)
when does weaning occur?6-8mo (in dairy, 6-12 WEEKS. damn)
what is a seed stock operation?1* goal is to produce stock which will be used as breeding animals (pedigree animal) (seed=semen. lol)
once they are weaned, what are the 2 places they could go?(1) feedlot (2) backgrounder
if they are weaned in the spring, what are they called and what happens to them?Known as "stocker calves" and can be grazed and fed high fiber diets-- this is backgrounding operation.
what is backgrounding, what are the cattle called when they are being backgrounded, why do this?usually if weaned in spring, make them STOCKER calves, you basically hold onto them and let them graze for a while longer, get more money for them at feedlot bc bigger
what is a feedlot/what happens here?takes preconditioned (or backgrounded) cattle, and puts them into a high plane of nutrition so they obtain fast growth rates as FEEDER CATTLE. When they are ready to be slaughtered they are fed cattle
what are feeder cattle?at the feedlot and growing
what are fed cattle?at the feedlot, now ready to be slaughtered
want a female to have a calf how often?once every 365 d
how long do they have to get preg again after calving to have a 365d calving interval?85d (and usu a 42d waiting period)
1st calving age target?24mo. (avg is 28 tho)
how far in advance do you need to make sure your bulls are fertile?6-8wk before breeding (bc takes about 6-8 weeks to make sperm-- any dz that can make them subfertile will mean they are subfertile 6-8wk)
how do you know if a bull has ejaculated?they jump
penis probs?bent penis (prolly missed vagina), corkscrew penis (see these? slaughter time)
when is calving period for beef?spring-- forage plentiful and high in energy. So calves are likely to grow faster, cows likely to return to estrus sooner, better shot at 365d calving interval (generally don't calf all year around bc too labor intensive)
how much colostrum how fast?need 4L colostrum in 1st 6 hours, 8L in first 24 hours (in dairy he said 4L in first 4 hours of life. Tyner says max 4L at a time, should have 10-20% body weight in first day/ 50ml/kg first hour)
what can you do at birth to avoid WMD?Se/Vit E injection
ways to ensure newborn is breathinghang upside down, slap chest (hard), stick piece of straw/hay up nose--> initiate sneeze reflex--> expel fluid and cause inhale, sit up sternally, inject resp stimulants IV or place drops under tongue
what do you do with baby's navel?use iodine neat or diluted with some surgical spirit. apply to whole of remaining U.cord AND navel. Dry it up--> reduce chances of infection entering
colostrum has to be consumed how fast?needs to be consumed within 9 hours, preferably 6 (Tyner says 4 is best bc starts closing then, closed by 12)
******COLOSTRUM IS ALL ABOUT THE 3Qs...QUANTITY (4L), QUALITY (colostrometer), QUICKLY (before 6 hours is best!!)
if calf cant get enough colostrum, what can you do?milk off 3L of colostrum, and give via teated bottle (best bc employs eso groove--> better Ab uptake) or stomach tube if necessary
5 alternative sources of colostrum?(1) Fresh colostrum from some other cow (2) frozen colostrum (Can keep for months) (3) colostrum replacer: most are just an energy source with LOW LEVELS of Abs. This is more of a top-up than a replacer :( (4) colostrum from neighboring farm-- johnes risk tho. (5) Locatim: This is a oral drench with specific Abs against diarrhea/scour
where do you place ear tag?in middle of ear between veins. Put lumpy part on inside of ear so doesnt get ripped out as easily.
3 castration methods(1) ringing (fairly painful only 2-3d tho) (2) crimping/crushing (most painful short term but least long term) (3) surgical. (sore up to 3 wk))
what is ringing, when do you do this?method of castration with a band. DONT DO IN fIRST 24 HOURS bc they will be uncomfortable and wont want to eat, but do within first week. Painful but pain only lasts 2-3d
how is crimping/crushing castration done?do with burdizzos, crushes BVs to testicles (he doesnt like. neither do I)
what does he recc to give for pain with castration?meloxicam (longest action) but anything better than nothing.
probs seen in first few weeks of lifepneumonia, diarrhea, navel/joint infxn, hypothermia, broken legs, meningitis
when do you do vx/why?after they are a few weeks old (COLOSTRAL Abs!!!))
important about care of vx? 2 basic types?must be used at right time, right age, right way, and stored correctly (not in door or back of fridge- right in the middle). always make sure farmer checks label. 2 basic types: (1) MLV (2) killed/toxoids
MLV vx: pros and cons?PRO: one dose may be sufficient, faster/stronger/longer-lasting, less likely to cause allergic rxns/lumps, usually less expensive. CON: risk of abortion/transient infertility, should admin 6-8wk prior to breeding system! should be mixed on-farm and used w/in 30min
Killed Vx: pros and cons?PRO: avail for many dzs, no risk of vx organism spreading between animals, min. risk of causing abortion, no on-farm mixing required. CON: more likely to cause allergic rxn/lumps, 2 initial doses required, slower onset of immunity, immunity not as strong or long lasting, usually more expensive
2 rules for IM injectionsDONT USE more than 10ml in any one place. always inject into NECK muscle (nowhere else)
what are the most important vx for CALVES? which are optional?MOST IMPORTANT: (1) CLOSTRIDIAL vxs (multivalent- lots of strains). (2) PNEUMONIA vxs (IBR, RSV, PI3, BVD). OPTIONALS: rabies, mannheima haemolytica, histophilus somni, mycoplasma bovis, pink eye, tetanus
4 dzs for pneumonia vx?IBR, BRSV, PI3, BVD
are clostridium always pathogenic?no, often normal flora. probs occur when stress, injury, changes, parasites happen. (TOXINS are the big prob with clostridium)
main CSs of clostridial infections?usually sudden death is first CS. possibly see severely ill/stiff
clostridial dz PM usually looks like?kidneys disintegrate on palpation and fluid in pericardium
C. tetani causes?tetanus/lockjaw
C. novyi causes?Black dz, malig edema
C. perfringens type A causes?jejunal hge syndrome, gas gangrene
C. perfringens type C causes?necrotic enterotoxemia
C. perfringens type D causes?enterotoxemia
C. septicum causes?malig edema/ gas gangrene
C. Chauvoei causes?blackleg, black quarter
C. Sordellii causes?enterotoxemia
C. Haemolyticum causes?red water dz (bacillary hemoglobinuria)
what are the vxs usually given to COWS?BVD, IBR, lepto 5 way (multivalent), clostridial vx (7 or 8 way multivalent), scour vx (for calves benefit- loads her colostrum up with these Abs), salmonella (if endemic in herd), brucellosis (bangs)
cause causes brucellosis? how is ti spread? what probs does it cause? how do we keep track of this?caused by BRUCELLA ABORTUS, causes ABORTION in 2nd half of gestation. spread via infected placenta/aborted material/vaginal discharge/milk/urine/dung. NOTIFIABLE AND ZOONOTIC. Can vx between 4-12mo, will get ORANGE ear tag.
age/weight for weaning? probs associated with weaning?should be 6-8mo old or 400-450lbs. high stress time= high dz risk at this time
what are the 3 finishing systems?(1) BULL BEEF (2) BACKGROUNDING (3) GRASS FED
explain what a bull beef finishing system isintact males intensively fed on high level of grain/corn and straw-- killed at 13 mo but >16mo and testosterone can taint meat. Probs associated are: soft feet, risk of abscesses due to SARA
explain what a backgrounding finishing system isspring born calves, steers and heifers on cow in 1st winter, grazed in their first summer, finished in 2nd winter on high energy feed (corn) kill at 16-20mo
explain what grass fed finishing system isautumn/winter born calves reared through 1st winter, fed silage in 2nd winter, then finished on grass. killed around 24 mo
earliest to latest kill time for finish systemsbull beef (most intense daily gain)--> backgrounding--> grass fed (oldest so fattest)