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FM-revision toxicology

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medmaestro's version from 2015-11-29 20:13

Section

FORENSIC MEDICINE –PATHOLOGY
POISONODOUR
White phosphorus(DIWALI POISON) ,arsenic,thallium,selenium,parathion,malathion,aluminium phosphidegarlic
Ethanol,chloroform,nitritessweety or fruity (acetone like or apple like)
Paraldehyde,chloral hydrate,phenol @ 0.005 ppmacrid
H2S Hydrogen sulphide,mercaptans,disulfiramrotten egg
Zinc phosphiderotten fish
HCNbitter almonds
OPCkerosene
Cannabisburnt rope
Carbon monoxidecoal gas
Nitrobenzeneshoe polish
Methyl salicylatewintergreen
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ORDEAL POISON IS PHYSOSTIGMINE
POISONCOLOUR CHANGES IN SKIN AND MUCOUS MEMBRANE
Sulphuric acid H2SO4,hydrochloric acid HCl,oxalic acidgrey (blackened by blood)
Nitric acidbrown
Hydrofluoric acidreddish brown
Carbolic acid ,caustic alkalisgreyish white
Mercuric chloridebluish white
Cresolsbrown ,leathery
Chromic acid ,potassium chromateorange ,leathery
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Post-mortem hypostasis/Post mortem staining/lividity/Vibices/Suggilation/cadaveric lividity/livor mortis/darkening of death

 

Poison/conditionpostmortem staining
Phosphorus / copperyellow /dark brown
Carbon monoxide CO,Burn,coldCherry red
Nitrites,aniline,chlorates,nitrates,potassium bicarbonatechocolate colour/red brown
HCN,KCN,NaCNBrick red (Pink / brown )
Opiumblack
Hydrogen sulphidebluish green
Clostridium perfringens septicemiabronze or greenish brown
Refrigerated bodies,hypothermiabright pink
Potassium chloratechocolate brown
Phosphorusdark brown
Co2 carbon dioxidedeep blue
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POISONSTOMACH MUCOSA APPEARANCE
Mercuryslate coloured
Arsenicred velvety
Strong acidsblackening , perforation,charring and eschar formation
Nitric acidyellow
Carbolic acidwhite and shivering
Cresolsbrown
Copperblue or green
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POISON/DRUGCOLOUR OF URINE
Rifampicin , phenothiazinesorange
Aniline ,brufenpink
Riboflavinyellow
Vitamin A , warfarinyellowish orange
Phenolbrownish green
Nitric acidbrown
Barbituratesliquid gold
Picric acidRuby red
Porphyrinspurple
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POISONPRESERVATIVE
All poisons excluding acids but including Carbolic acidsaturated saline
All acids except carbolic acidrectified spirit
Oxalic acid ,ethylene glycolsodium citrate
Alcoholsodium fluoride+potassium oxalate
Carbon monoxideliquid paraffin
Urinethymol
Histopathological specimen/examination10 % formalin
Suspected rabies50% glycerine
Bleaching powder/chlorine gasrectified spirit
Blood for groupingequal volume of 5 % sodium citrate + 0.25 ml formalin
Blood for chemical analysispotassium oxalate+NaF Sodium fluoride +layer of liquid paraffin above it in cases of CO Crabon monoxide or other gases poisoning)
CSFsodium fluoride 250mg/30 ml fluid(CSF Collected by cisternal puncture through atlantooccipital membrane/puncturing ventricles through exposed brain surface)
Nails,bone,hair,swabsNO PRESERVATIVE,femur is preferred among bones
Vitreous humourstored in refrigerator @ 4 deg Celcius upto 48 hrs
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VISCERA RESERVEDPOISONING
Heartstrychnine,digitalis
BrainOPC,opiates,CO,Cyanide,Strychnine,barbiturates,anaesthetics
Spinal cordstrychnine,gelsemium
CSFAlcohol
Bilenarcotics,cocaine,methadone,glutathione,barbiturates
Vitreousalcohol,chloroform
Skinhypodermic injection marks
Bone,nailsarsenic,antimony,thallium,radium
Fatinsecticides and pesticides
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ADDITIONAL MATERIALS TO BE PRESERVED IN CERTAIN POISONINGS
POISONPRESERVED SPECIMEN
Alcohol100ml blood from peripheral vein + 100ml CSF
Barbiturates½ brain
CO,Coal gas,chloroform,cyanides100ml blood from heart + ½ brain
Heavy metals10 cm of shaft of long bone (FEMUR) + 5 gm of plucked scalp Hair+ all finger or toe nails(nails entirely removed from their nail-beds)+skin of back+wedge of quadriceps muscles before opening abdomen
Injected poisonsskin+subcutaneous tissue +muscle forming injection track bone deep + similar material from opposite area as control
Organophophorus ,endrine,neurotic poisonsBrain+spinal cord in addition to routine viscera
Criminal abortionvagina+cervix+uteus+adnexa and contents
Firearm injuriesskin around entrance wounds
Hydrophobiabrain for negri bodies (for pathology)
For HPESections of various internal organs and body tissues in 10% formalin (6-9mm or ¼ - 3/8 inch thickness)
For Microbiologyblood from heart ,smears,from throat ,swabs,from abscess cavities,fluid from cysts collected for bacteriological and other examination
Blood for AlcoholNaF.
UrineThymol.
Faecesrectified spirit.
CO, HCN liquid paraffin or no preservative if fresh.
As, Sb(antimony) 15 cm long bone.
Rabies/virological specimens 50% glycerol saline, keep hippocampus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, medulla.
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