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Fluids and Electrolytes Exam

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kylerigonan's version from 2016-06-12 17:58

Section

Question Answer
Calcium normal range8.6-10 mg/DL or 4.5-5.8 mEq/L
What do you need for absorption and utilization of calcium?Parathyroid, calcitonin and Vitamin D
Function of calciumneeded for normal blood clotting, promote normal transmission of nerve impulses, and enzyme activation for chemical reactions
What are the causes of hypocalcemia?Decrease of PTH, diarrhea, LT immobilization and bone demineralization, lack of sunlight, acute pancreatitis, Crohn's disease, excess admin of citrated blood, Calcium excreted meds
What are the causes of hypercalcemia?Hyperparathyroidism, renal failure, use of lithium, gluccocorticoids, adrenal insufficiency
what are the signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia?hypotension, tachycardia, prolonged QT interval, diarrhea, Chvostek's sign, Trousseau's sign, hyperactive BS, cramps, paresthesias, twitching
What are the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia?^HR, HTN, Short QT interval, constipation, n/v, bounding pulse, bradycardia late stage, widened T-wave, muscle weakness, decreased deep tendon reflex, abdominal distention, confusion, lethargy, coma
what are the interventions of hypocalcemia?administer 10% calcium gluconate for acute calcium deficit, initiate seizure precautions, administer supplements 1-2 hours after meals, provide quiet environment and avoid overstimulation
What are the interventions of hypercalcemia?prepare to give phosphate, increase mobility, monitor for severe flank pain or abdominal pain and strain urine, avoid thiazide diuretics
Chloride (Cl-)Extracellular anion, normal range: 96-105 mEq/L, chief anion in interstitial and intravascular fluid, has the ability to diffuse quickly between the intracellular and extracellular compartments and combine easily with Na and K, main route of excretion is kidneys
Hypochloremiausually occurs when Na is lost. Most common cause are from vomiting, prolonged NG or fistula drainage
HyperchloremiaRarely occurs but may be seen when bicarbonate levels fall
PhosphorusIntracellular anion, normal range is 4 mEq/L, has an inverse relationship with calcium, diet intake usually 800-1500mg/day,
What are the causes of hypophosphatemia?Alcohol withdrawal, use of Mg-based antacids, renal failure, hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia, DKA, respiratory alkalosis
What are the s/sx of hypophopsphatemia?confusion, seizures, weakness, decreased deep tendon reflexes, shallow respirations increased bleeding frequency, immunosuppression, and bone pain
What are the interventions of hypophosphatemia?monitor respiratory status for s/sx of respiratory alkalosis, monitor for decreased neuromuscular activity, monitor for calcium excess and kidney stones, monitor for hematological changes in bleeding, instruct pt regarding use of antacids
What foods are high in phosphate?fish, organ meant, nuts, pork, beef, chicken, whole grain, bread, cereal
Hyperphosphatemiaincreased levels above 4.5
What may be the causes of hyperphosphatemia?overuses of phosphorus containing laxatives or enemas, Vit. D intoxication, hypoparathyroidism, renal insufficiency, chemotherapy
What are the signs and symptoms of hyperphosphatemia?Neuromuscular irritability, muscle weakness, hyperactive reflexes, tetany, positive Chvostek's or Trousseau's signs
What are the interventions of hyperphosphatemia?prepare for dialysis, monitor for hyperreflexia, tetany, and seizures. Increase fecal excretion of phosphorus with PhosLo (Calcium phosphate), phosphate binding meds should be given with meals or immediately after meals
Magnesium2nd most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid, majority found in bone, muscle, and soft tissue. Diet intake is usually 200-400 mg/day. Major route excreted through kidneys
What is the normal range of Mg?1.5-2.4 mEq/L
What foods contain Mg?whole grains, fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, legumes, and dairy products
What are the signs and symptoms of hypomagnesemia?SIMILAR TO HYPOCALCEMIA.... hypotension, tachycardia, prolonged QT interval, diarrhea, Chvostek's sign, Trousseau's sign, hyperactive BS, cramps, paresthesias, twitching
What are the causes of hypomagnesemia?increased excretion by the kidneys, impaired absorption from the GI tract, and prolonged malnutrition
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