Fluid Status and Electrolyte Balance

juliaterese's version from 2015-09-16 19:00

Section 1

Question Answer
5 functions of waternutrient transport, waste transport/excretion, cell structure, lubrication, temperature regulation
electrolytegroup of solutes found in body fluids
how much of body weight is water?50-60%
interstitial fluidfluid found between cells
transcellular luidfluid found in organ secretions
3 types of ECFinterstitial, intravascular, transcellular
third spacesnonfunctional spaces that...
is there more ICF or ECF?ICF

Section 2

Question Answer
colloid osmotic pressurepressure of protein molecules such as albumin that do not form a true solution
type of pressure blood pressure ishydrostatic (intravascular)
normal osmolality of blood280 to 320 mOsm/kg
fluids with osmolality less than bloodhypotonic
fluids with osmolality more than bloodhypertonic
fluid environment during cellular dehydrationhypertonic
fluid environment during cellular sellinghypotonic

Section 3

Question Answer
what should be included on I/O sheets
who documents I/O sheetsnurse
what is included in a calorie count and when is it used?
when is the only time metabolic water is significant?organ failure
fluid losses that can be measuredsensible
fluid losses that cannot be measuredinsensible
how sensible losses are measured24 hour usrine collection, feces
examples of insensible lossesrespiration, through skin by evaporation
urine needed for excretion of wasteobligatory urine
waste removed in urinerenal solute load
how solute concentration of urine is measuredspecific gravity
urine that has fluid in excess of what is needed to excrete metabolic wastesfacultative urine
urine tests included in assessmentcolor, osmolality, specific gravity

Section 4

Question Answer
EAL on fluid needs calculationno validated or established equations
mL/kcal for adults1
mL/kcal for infants`1.5
ways to calculate fluidbased on nitrogen and energy intake, based on BSA, urine output + 500mL, 1mL/kcal, based on age and body weight, based on disease state
ways to assess and monitor hydration statusdaily weights, admit physical eval, blood pressure, peripheral edema, I/O records, abnormal labs

Section 5

Question Answer
%wt change for mild fluid volume deficit or 2
% wt change for moderate fluid deficit or excess5
% wt change for severe fluid excess or defecit8
lab values that are increased in fluid volume defecit (other than electrolytes)osmolality, BUN, glucose, hematocrit
list electrolytessodium, potassium, calcium, Mg, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, sulfate
electrolyte with narrow normal rangepotassium

Section 6

Question Answer
ways fluid and electrolutes are regulatedosmotic and hydrostatic pressure, thirst mechanism, GI tract, kidneys, hormones
average amount of fluid in the GI tract9L
3 major sources of vasopressin increased ECF osmolarity, decreased ECF, angiotensin ii
formerly ADHvasopressin
stimulates the release of reninangiotensinogen
converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin Irenin
what happens one angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin iithirst, increased fluid intake, vasoconstriction, release of vasopressin, stimulates adrenal cortex for release of aldosterone
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