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Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

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juniperk's version from 2016-11-25 22:31

Section

Question Answer
What is acidosis?condition characterized by a proportionate excess of hydrogen ions in the extracellular fluid, in which the pH falls below 7.35
What is active transport?a process that requires energy for the movement of substances through a cell membrane, against the concentration gradient, from an area of lesser solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
What is an agglutinin?an antibody that causes a clumping of specific antigens
What is alkalosis?condition, characterized by a proportionate lack of hydrogen ions in the extracellular fluid concentration, in which the pH exceeds 7.45
What is an anions?ion that carries a negative electric charge
What is an antibody?immunoglobin produced by the body in response to a specific antigen
What is an antigen?foreign material capable of inducing a specific immune response
When does an autologous transfusion occur?occurs when a patient donates one’s own blood for a transfusion
What is capillary filtration?passage of fluid across the wall of the capillary; results from the force of blood “pushing” against the walls of the capillaries
What are cations?ions that carries a positive electric charge
What is colloid osmotic pressure?pressure exerted by plasma proteins on permeable membranes in the body; synonym for oncotic pressure
What is diffusion?tendency of solutes to move freely throughout a solvent from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is established
What is Extracellular fluid (ECF)?fluid outside the cells; includes intravascular and interstitial fluids
What is hydrostatic pressure?force exerted by a fluid against the container wall. pushing force.
What is hypercalcemia?excess of calcium in the extracellular fluid
What is hyperkalemia?excess of potassium in the extracellular fluid
What is hypermagnesemia?excess of magnesium in the extracellular fluid
What is hypernatremia?excess of sodium in the extracellular fluid
What is hyperphosphatemia?above-normal serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus
What is hypertonic?having a greater concentration than the solution with which it is being compared
What is hypervolemia?excess of plasma
What is intracellular fluid (ICF)?fluid within the cell
What does isotonic mean? having about the same concentration as the solution with which it is being compared
What does osmolarity?concentration of particles in a solution, or a solution’s pulling power
What is osmosis?passage of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration until equilibrium is established
What are solutes?substances that are dissolved in a solution. The solutes are electrolytes and nonelectrolytes
What are solvents?liquid holding a substance in solution. Water is the primary solvent in the body
What are the major cations in body fluid?sodium, potassium, calcium, hydrogen, and magnesium ions
What are the major anions in body fluid?chloride, bicarbonate, and phosphate
Major electrolytes in the ECF include what?sodium, chloride, calcium, and bicarbonate
Major electrolytes in the ICF include what?potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium
What is the chief function of Sodium?controls and regulates volume of body fluids, muscle contraction & nerve impulses
What is the chief function of Potassium?chief regulator of cellular enzyme activity and water content, transmission of electrical impulses in nerve, heart, skeletal, lung and intestinal tissue
What is the chief function of Calcium?nerve impulse, blood clotting, muscle contraction, B12 absorption
What is the chief function of Magnesium?metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins, vital actions involving enzymes, vasodilation
What is the chief function of Chloride?maintains osmotic pressure in blood, produces hydrochloric acid
What is the chief function of Bicarbonate?body’s primary buffer system
What is the chief function of Phosphate?Acid-base balance- buffer, energy storage, metabolism, bone & teeth formation
What the Na+/K+-ATPase membrane pump do?Moves ions uphill against the concentration gradient & osmotic pressure. Removes 3 Na+ ions from the cell for every 2 K+ ions moved back into the cell
Name 4 reasons to keep the sodium level of the plasma volume so much higher than the sodium level of the intracellular volume?1.Intracellular sodium is toxic to living human cells. 2. Excess sodium displaces oxygen on the hemoglobin of red blood cells. 3.High plasma levels of sodium are needed to balance the high plasma levels of magnesium. 4.Excitable membranes are dependent on sodium concentration differences for depolarization.
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