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Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 2

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juniperk's version from 2016-11-26 02:02

Section

Question Answer
What is the pulling force in plasma colloid osmotic pressure?Albumin
What does increased and decreased levels in albumin indicate?increased = dehydration, decreased = catabolism, inflammation, limited synthesis
What type of IV fluid would you use for Shock, hypovolemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, blood transfusions, resuscitation, metabolic alkalosis, fluid replacement in DKA?0.9% Sodium Chloride (NS)
What type of IV fluid would you use for Fluid loss, dehydration, hypernatremia?Dextrose 5% in Water (D%W)
What type of IV fluid would you use for Dehydration, Metabolic needs as burns, pre op, metabolic acidosis ?Lactated Ringers (LR)
Name 2 IV hypotonic solutions0.45% NaCL and 0.33% NaCl
Name 3 IV hypertonic solutionsD5 ½ NS (5% Dextrose in 0.45% NS), D10 W (10% dextrose in water), D5NS (5% dextrose in 0.9% NaCL)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is produced by what and how is it secreted?Produced by Hypothalamus, stored in posterior pituitary gland. Secreted by pituitary gland when there is an ECF fluid volume deficit, or an increase in osmolality (#of solutes)
What makes the kidney tubules and collecting ducts more permeable to water?ADH
What does Aldosterone do?Aldosterone acts on the distal tubules of the nephrons and triggers reabsorption of sodium from the urine back into the blood.
What does renin do?promotes peripheral vasoconstriction and the release of aldosterone (sodium & water retention)
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is triggered by what?an increased venous return stretching the right atrial cells.
The result of released ANP is increased what?urinary excretion of sodium and water. Thereby decreasing circulating blood volume & decreased blood osmolarity
How does the Lymphatic system regulate fluid balance?Lymphatic system promotes the return of water & protein from interstitial space to vascular spaces
What is the earliest sign of the decreased vascular volume?Tachycardia
What causes the tongue to look red and swollen?Sodium excess
Irregular pulse rates also occur with ___ imbalances and ____deficit.potassium imbalances and magnesium deficit.
Moist crackles, in the absence of cardiopulmonary disease, indicate fluid volume ___excess
A fall in systolic pressure greater than 15 mm Hg from the lying to the sitting or standing position (postural hypotension) usually indicates fluid volumedeficit
Increased hematocrit values means what for fluid level?severe fluid volume deficit and shock
Decreased hematocrit values are found when what is happening?found with acute, massive blood loss, and with hemolytic reaction after transfusion of incompatible blood or with fluid overload
Decreased levels of hemoglobin can indicate what?found with anemia states, severe hemorrhage, and after a hemolytic reaction
Increased BUN can indicate what?impaired renal function (such as associated with shock, heart failure, salt and water depletion), diabetic ketoacidosis, burns
Increased creatinine can indicate what? impaired renal function, heart failure, shock, dehydration
_____ urinary pH can occur with metabolic acidosis, diabetic ketosis, and diarrhea.Low
______ urinary pH can occur with respiratory alkalosis, potassium depletion, and chronic renal failure.High
Specific gravity is a measure of the urine’s what?concentration
In respiratory acid–base imbalances, the pH and PaCO2 values are what?inversely abnormal (move in opposite directions)
In metabolic acid–base imbalances, the pH and HCO3− values are what? both high or both low
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