Fluid and Electrolytes

pewibawo's version from 2016-02-28 17:07

Section 1

Question Answer
intercellular fluidfluid in the cells
extracellular fluidfluid outside the cells
interstitial fluidfluid around the cells (in ECF)
intravascular fluidfluid in the bloodstream (plasma) (in ECF)
do obese or thinner people have a higher total body waterthinner people carrier more water
desirable amount of I&O in adults1500-3500 mL each 24 hours
hypothalamus is stimulated bydecreased blood volume and intracellular dehydration
sensible lossesurine, defecation, wounds
insensible lossescant be seen/measured; evaporation from skin and lungs

Section 2

Question Answer
kidneysregulate ECF fluid volume and electrolytes in the ECF
heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular system)circulate blood through the kidneys for urine to form. react to hypovolemia by stimulating fluid retention
lungsremove 300ml of water daily through exhalation (insensible losses)
adrenal glandssecrete aldosterone; causing sodium retention (and thus water retention) and potassium loss
pituitary glandstores and releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH), causing renal retention of water
nervous system regulates oral intake by sensing intracellular dehydration and decreased blood volume, which triggers thirst center (in hypothalamus)
parathyroid glandsregulates calcium and phosphorus. steals calcium and puts it in the bloodstream-wants the blood equal (if calcium stays, phosphorous goes)
GI tractretain and absorb nutrients from which you get from water

Section 3

Question Answer
cations ALWAYS equalanions
cationssodium potassium calcium and magnesium
non electrolytesglucose urea and creatinine
normal sodiumin ECF; 135-145
normal potassiumin ICF; 3.5-5
normal calciumin ECF; 8-10
normal magnesiumin ICF; 1.5-2.5
normal phosphorousin ICF; 2.5-4.5

Section 4

Question Answer
osmosismovement of water from lesser to greater concentration
diffusionsolutes (gases) move freely throughout the solvent until equilibrium is established
active transportmovement requiring ATP (energy)
filtrationfluids moving from an area of high to low pressure
hydrostatic pressurepushing force during filtration
colloid osmotic pressurepulling force during filtration
arteriesunder pressure
veinsnot under pressure

Section 5

Question Answer
hypovolemiaa fluid volume deficit of both water and solutes from the ECF(deficiency of blood plasma)
weight loss of 15%life threatening
the most accurate measure of fluid volumeDAILY WEIGHT
who is at a higher risk for a FVDyoung children, older adults, and people who are ill
third space shiftcan not be measured, weight stays the same.
hypervolemiaa fluid volume excess of water and sodium in the ECF
edemaaccumulatin of fluid in the interstitial space
treatments for hypovolemiaIV solutions (NaCl 0.9% or blood)
treatments for hypervolemiadiuretics, restrict fluid and/or Na+, fluid removal

Section 6

Question Answer
hyponatremiasodium deficit<135 caused by sodium loss/gain of water
hyponatremia affects the brain
S/S of hyponatremiaCAN CAUSE SEIZURES. cells swell. confusion, hypotension, edema, muscle cramps, weakness, dry skin
treatments for hyponatremiarestrict fluids, oral Na+ supplements, high Na+ foods, 3% NaCl
hypernatremiasodium>145 caused by gain of sodium or excess loss of water
hyponatremia affects the brain
S/S of hypernatremiacells shrink/Dehydration, Thirst, Dry membranes, hallucinations, delusion, weakness, restlessness
treatments for hypernatremiarestrict Na+ intake, give PO/IV fluids
hypokalemiapotassium< 3.5 caused by vomiting, gastric suction, alkalosis, diarrhea, or the use of diuretics
hypokalemia affects the muscle and heart
S/S of hypokalemialeg cramps, muscle weakness, fatigue, paresthesias, and dysrhthemias, Alkalosis
treatments for hypokalemiahigh K+ diet, K+ supplements, IV K+ diluted in large amount of IV fluid, Dig Toxicity
hyperkalemiapotassium>5.0 caused by renal failure, meds..
hyperkalemia affects the heart
S/S of hyperkalemiaCAN CAUSE CARDIAC ARREST. skeletal muscle weakness and paralysis, ECG Tall T
treatments for hyperkalemialoop diuretics, restrict dietary K+, Kayexalate, Calcium Gluconate, dialysis
hypocalcemiacalcium deficit <9.0
hypocalcemia affects thebrain and muscles
S/S of hypocalcemiaCAN CAUSE SEIZURES. tachycardia. numbness and tingling of fingers mouth or feet, tetany, muscle cramps
treatments for hypocalcemiaCa+ oral supplement, Mg+ replacement, Vit D
hypercalcemiacalcium >10.5 caused Hyperthyroidism/Cancer
hypercalcemia affects the heart and brain
S/S of hypercalcemiaCAN CAUSE CARDIAC ARREST. confusion, lethargy, N/V/C, bone pain,Kidney stones, Fractures
treatments for hypercalcemiaCranberry juice, Decrease intake, Calcitonin prevent resorption, loop diuretics, mobilization
hypomagnesemia (resembles hypokalemia)magnesium<1.3 caused by alcohol withdrawal, diarrhea, nasogastric suction
hypomagnesemia affects the muscles and brain
S/S of hypomagnesemiahyperactive DTR's, respiratory paralysis, muscle weakness, tremors, tetany, seizures
treatments of hypomagnesemiareplace Mg+, Salts cause diarrhea
hypermagnesemiaexcess of magnesium >2.1 caused by renal failure
S/S of hypermagnesemian/v, weakness, flushing, lethargy, resp depression, coma, cardiac arrest
treatments of hypermagnesemiafocused on prevention, IV calcium given in emergencies, dialysis