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Fixed and Fuzzy Meanings

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gemmalesley's version from 2017-05-09 19:39

Section

Question Answer
Evelyn WaughWords have basic inalienable meanings. Departure from them is vulgar.
Robin Lakoff, 1973Natural language concepts have vague boundaries and fuzzy edges.
Edward Titchener, 1909The Snapshot View.
What is the Snapshot View?An image in one's head for every word.
Componential AnalysisComponents necessary to define something, i.e. [human] [male]
The Checklist ViewCritical attributes associated with a word; checklist.
William Labov's Cup Experiment, 1973When does a mug become a cup? Does it change depending on what's in it?
Idealised Cognitive ModelsTheories about the world based on culture and experience.
Lakoff on Cognitive ModelsA combination of semantic and encyclopedic knowledge.
ICMs could include:Non-essential info, like 'bachelors drive red sports cars'
Ludwig WittgensteinFamily Resemblances.
Family ResemblancesThere is no totality of common features; rather a series of overlapping features
Natural Semantic MetalanguageSemantic primitives/primes and a set of rules for combining them
Semantic Primitives/PrimesSemantic concepts that are innately understood
What are Semantic Primitives/Primes meant to be?Universal and undefinable
Examples of Semantic Primitives/PrimesDeterminers: this, the same, other; Quantifiers: two, some, many; Descriptors: big, small
Anna WierzbickaNatural Semantic Metalanguage
Eleanor Rosch, 1975Prototype Theory
Prototype TheorySome things are 'more of something' than others; study looking at this
Prototypical ExampleThe thing that comes to mind when given a category
Eleanor Rosch's conclusionsCognitive capacities, categories rely on prototypes, boundaries are fuzzy, things can be rated on a scale of good to bad examples
Lobner, 2003Disagrees with Rosch. Thinks semantic categories are binary, things must be fixed somehow, must be a yes or no answer.
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