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ptrigo's version from 2017-11-23 21:40

Characteristics of living beings

Question Answer
homeostasisthe ability of an organism to return to a balanced state
metabolismall the processes in an organism related to the production, transformation and use of energy
developmentthe change in the function of an organ or system to adjust to different conditions
reproductionthe ability of an organism or its cell to produce new organisms or cells.
cellularthey contain at least one cell
evolutionas a species they can adapt to their environment
respond to stimulithey react to their environment and to changes within them.

Mechanism of Evolution

Question Answer
bottleneckwhen a random event kills members of a particular species thus reducing the number of total species present.
gene flowwhen genes of a particular population are combined with those of another from a different region
founder effectthe genes of a new individual are inserted into a new population giving origin to a new species.
mutationone or more genes are changed
DNA recombinationthe genes of 2 chromosomes are exchanged to generate a wider variation.
genetic drifta random event reduces one or more populations, or some organisms reproduce more than others.


Tips: Try to write an example of each of this mechanism of evolution. Ask a friend to do the same and compare, contrast and make any corrections to both works if needed.

Theories of evolution

Question Answer
Lamarckdescribed that organisms change when they use an organ and develop it or lose it if they don't. He used giraffes as example.
DarwinDescribed evolution as part of "Natural Selection" he mentioned that individuals that were better adapted will succeed in reproducing and will inherit such favorable characteristics to the next generation.
WallaceHe worked at the same time as Darwin, describing variation in species across the areas around today┬┤s New Zeland.

Levels of organization

Question Answer
sub atomicparticles such as protons, neutrons and electrons.
atomica group of subatomic particles that create the basis of an element (like atomic oxygen).
moleculara group of atoms that make a compound with unique chemical characteristics (like water or carbon dioxide)
cellulara group of molecules and/or organelles that constitute the basic form of a living being.
histologicala group of cells with a common function. Examples include tissues like the nervous, connective, muscular and epithelial.
organica group of tissues with a common function, like the heart or lungs.
systemica group of organs with a common function, like the circulatory system made of the heart, blood vessels and blood.
individual/organisma group of systems that can be self sustainable, for example: you!
populationa group of organisms of the same species that share a common territory
communitya group of organisms of different species that share a common territory
ecosystema group of organisms and the non living things (environment) that surround them, like a dessert or a jungle.
biosphereeverywhere on Earth where life exists.

Theories of the Origin of Living Beings

Question Answer Column 3
panspermiatheory that explains living beings come from organic molecules that got to Earth from outer spaceArrhenius
endosymbiosisit states that smaller organisms such as bacteria were introduced to larger cells helping them by providing elements necessary to their survival, like energyLynn Margulies
physical chemicalproposes that living beings were originated from organic compounds (coacervates) made from basic molecules under the adequate environmental conditions, like temperature en pressureOparin and Haldane
creationismusually related to religion it states that life was originated as a divine creationfirst proponents include Egyptians, Mesopotamians, Greeks, Romans and Jews.
biogenesisit mentions that life has to be originated from other forms of life, it disproved the spontaneous generationLouis Pasteur/ Redi
spontaneous generationit states that organic matter comes from inorganic things like mold growing on the breadAnaximander, Anaxagoras


Question Answer
biodiversityit is the variety (different) of species in a particular region
interspecifictype of relationship between members of different species
intraspecifictype of relationships between members of the same species
competitionwhen 2 organisms of different or the same species fight one another to get the same resource
collaborationwhen 2 organisms of the same species help one another to enhance their resources
commensalismwhen one organism of a species helps feed another from a different species without being hurt in the process
parasitism when one organism of a species helps feed another from a different species being hurt in the process
mutualismwhen 2 organisms of different species help one another to get resources
predationwhen 1 organism hunts another of a different species to get food.