First Half of Avian

isabellepjk's version from 2017-04-27 14:37


Lecture 2

Question Answer
What are the main forelimb modifications in birdsLarge decrease in number of bones
Surface area of the wing is increased by wing folds
What are the main modifications in the hindlimb of birds?Slanted pelvic girdle and fused to the vertebral column
tarsal region is elongated
What are the modifications birds have for flight?HIgh metabolic rate
high body temp and rapid digestion
Little body fat
Efficient resp system which is very complex
the larger/heavy viscera is situated ventrally
Several bones are pneumatized/aerated by air sac diverticula
What are the main features of the avian skull?Cranium has large orbits and a small cranium
the face forms the craniofacial zone in the form of a beak
Whare the main features of the avian vertebral column?13-17 cervical bones
head can turn 130D
Floating cervical ribs
Thoracic verts 2-5 are fused and form the notarium, the 6th is free, and the 7th is fused to the lumbar segment
Ribs 2-6 bear the ucinate processes
Cr and Cd border of wings are called (respectively) leading and trailing edge
What is the synsacrum? Fused lumbar/sacral verts
What is a pygostyle?Fusion of last few (5-6) caudal verts
What are the parts of the sternum?The keel (carina) and other processes (rostrum/manubrium/CrLt/CdLt/thoracic)
What is furcula?2 fused clavicles "wishbone"
Which bones are a part of the pectoral girdle?Scapula, Clavicle, and coracoid bones
Which is bigger- radius or ulna?ulna is Larger
How many digits to birds have in the thoracic limb?3 (2-4)
What is the pinioning?A section of tendon of the extensor carpi radialis m. at the Dr part of the carpus (can remove the entire manus at the carpus)
What is basis for the upright posture seen in birds?the fusion of the ilium, synsacrum, and pelvis
What is the renal fossae?A deep concavity in the renal fossae
What are the two articular surfaces of the femur?With the acetabulum
Above the acetabulum at the antitrochanter (allows the birds to balance on one foot)
How many digits are in the pelvic limb?4; 1-4
What is the horny claw?a part on the terminal claw of the hindlimb in birds
How many muscles can be found in a bird? What are the two types of muscle?170 muscles
Red and White types
What is unique about the bird face?There are no facial muscles
What are the major muscles of avians? What are the main functions of these musclesPectoralis M for the wing downstroke
Supracoracoideus m. for the upstroke of the wing
Latissimys dorsi m. for folding up the wing, also draws the wind caudally.
What is a rhamphotheca?the beak/horny bill of birds.
there is a maxillary and mandibular rhamphotheca; and a rhinotheca and gnathothecea with upper and lower tomia
What are the parts of the hard palatelong median slit is the choanal opening followed by the infundibular cleft
What is a unique feature of the avian tongue?Entoglossal bone
What are the components of the caudal floor of the oropharynx of avians?Laryngeal mound with the median slit
Laryngeal glottis which opens into the larynx
What is the organ of sound in birds?syrinx
Which class of birds has the best developed salivary glands in the oropharynx?granivorous
What is the topographical location of the stomach in birds?It is left of the median plane
What are the two portions of the stomach and what are their functions/general characteristics?The proventriculus- thick walled due to compound tubular glands which secrete gastric juice
THe Gizzard which is well muscled. The internal lining is made from a cuticle of kaolin which can withstand grits
What is an iportant part of the small intestine of a bird?Vitellin (Meckel's diverticulum)
What are the parts of the large intestine?Ceca, colorectum (colon and rectum)
What are some features of the cecum?it is at the ilecorectal junction, is well developed in granivorus birds (and very long in ostrich), contains a base, a body, and an apex
Into where does the colorectum open?coprodeum of the cloaca
What are the parts of the cloaca?Coprodeum, urodeum, and proctodeum
What are the parts of the median ventral phallus of the birds?Median and lateral phallic bodies and lymphatic folds
What is the largest organ of the avian body?Liver
Which species have the largest liver?It is larger in piscivorous or insectivorus birds than in grainvorous or omnivorous birds.
Which organ is important in avian leucosis complex/Marek's dz?The liver
What are the main features of the respiratory system of avians?Small compact nasal cavity
lungs are non expansible
air sacs connected to lungs
What is a opercula?The partial covering of the nostrils
What is some important shit about the Cd Nasal concha?It opens VtLt into the infraorbital septum, it is SQ and soft to touch, Would drain infection by vt incision
What is important of the nasal gland of aviansDrLt part of the nasal cavity, it is able to secrete excess salt from the body in sea birds!
What is important about the avian larynxit is not the voice organ, but it does modulate the sounds
it has a few laryngeal cartilages
What type of rings can be found in the trachea?They are complete rings which expand DtLt and Vtlt and overlap
What is the pessulus?The basis of the avian syrinx
What actaully produces the sound in the syrinx?typaniform membranes
What is the syringeal bulla?IN THE DUCK it is an asymmetrical dilation of the left side of the syrinx
What are some general characteristics of the lungs?Dorsal in the body cavity
Roughly quadrilateral (costal, verterbral, and septal surfaces)
Small in size (10% the size of a mammal of similar size
inelastic and inexpansible
Deeply indented by vertebral ribs on the costal surface
covered by the horizontal septum vt
What types of bronchi are the primary bronchi in avians?extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary
What are the 4 secondary bronchi given off by the intrapulmonary bronchus?Paleopulmo (mdVt and MdDr)
Neopulmo (LtVt and LtDr)
What are some characteristics of parabronchi of avians?Uniform, freely anastomosing tubes, walls contain the gas exchange areas of the lung
What are the atria of the lung?chambers arising from the parabronchi which are surrounded by yellow elastic fibers
What are the infundibula of the avian lung?Spindle shaped and extend from the floor of the atria
What are the air caps and the blood caps of the avian lung?Air caps are very fine terminal divisons of the infundibula
blood caps are intertwining with air caps and are the gas exchange area