First Aid - Respiratory

arold001's version from 2015-12-30 19:38

Section 1

Question Answer
what comprises the respiratory zone (participates in gas exchange)respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
histology of type 1 pneumocyte vs type 2 pneuomocytetype 1 cells: squamous, line the alveoli. type 2 cells: cuboidal and clustered
which cell secretes pulmonary surfactant?type II cells
which cell serves as a precursor to type 1 and type 2 cells?type 2 cells
what makes up surfactant?lecithins and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine
when does surfactant production begin and mature?begins at week 26 and matures at week 35
what does a lecithin: sphingomyelin ratio >2 indicate?fetal lung maturity
how many lobes does the right lung vs left lung have?left lung: 2 lobes. right lung: 3 lobes
why is the right lung more common site for inhaled FB?bc the right main stem bronchus is WIDER and more VERTICAL than left
name 2 ways in which the trachea can be compressed?1) aortic arch aneurysm 2) thyroid goiter
air that can still be breathed in after normal inspirationinspiratory reserve volume
air that moves into lung with each quiet inspiration (500 mL)tidal volume
air that can still be breathed OUT after normal expirationexpiratory reserve volume (ERV)
air in lung after maximal expiration; cant be measuredresidual volume
IRV +TVinspiratory CAPACITY
RV+ ERV (volume in lungs after normal expiration)functional residual capacity
max volume of gas that can be expired after a max inspirationvital capacity
volume of gas present in lungs after a max inspirationtotal lung capacity

Section 2

Question Answer
What is compliance?C = V/P, change in lung volume for a given change in pressure
name 3 disorders a/w DECREASED compliance1) pulmonary fibrosis
2) pneumonia
3) pulmonary edema
why do you see decreased compliance in pulmonary fibrosis?for a LARGE change in pressure there's little change in volume
name 2 disorders a/w INCREASED compliancenormal aging and emphysema
why do you see an INCREASED compliance in emphysema?for a small change in pressure, there's a LARGE increase in volume
what are the 2 forms of Hb?taut (low affinity for oxygen) and relaxed (high affinity for oxygen)
increase in what 5 things favors Hgb taut form over relaxed form --> increased oxygen unloadingincrease Cl, H+, CO2, 2,3-BPG, temp
what is methemoglobin?oxidized form of Hgb (ferric, Fe+3) that does not bind O2 as readily, but has increased affinity for cyanide
how do you tx cyanide poisoning?use nitrites to oxidize hemoglobin to methemoglobin, which then binds to cyanide

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