First Aid Rapid Review - Key Associations

mlinnie's version from 2018-11-09 22:49


Question Answer
Actinic (solar) keratosisPrecursor to SCC
Acute gastric ulcer associated w/ CNS injuryCushing's ulcer (↑ ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)
Acute gastric ulcer associated w/ severe burnsCurling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)
Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colonSkip lesions (Crohn's disease)
Aneurysm, dissectingHypertension
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aortaAtherosclerosis
Aortic aneurysm, ascendingMarfan's syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)
Atrophy of the mammillary bodiesWernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine [B1] deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)
Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)Sickle cell anemia (HbS)
Bacterium associated w/ gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancerH. pylori
Bacterial meningitis (adults & elderly)Neisseria meningitidis
Bacterial meningitis (newborns & kids)Strep agalactiae [Group B] (newborns); S. pneumoniae/N. meningitidis (kids)
Benign melanocytic nevusSpitz nevus (most common in first 2 decades)
Bleeding disorder w/ GpIb deficiencyBernard-Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion to vWF)
Brain tumor (adults)Supratentorial: mets > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma
Brain tumor (kids)Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum)
Supratentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)
Breast cancerinfiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the US, 1/9 women will develop breast cancer)
Breast mass1. Fibrocystic change
2. Carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)
Breast tumor (benign)Fibroadenoma
Cardiac 1* tumor (kids)Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis
Cardiac manifestation of lupusLibman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)
Cardiac tumor (adults)1. Metastasis
2. 1* myxoma (4:1 LA to RA; "ball and valve")
Cerebellar tonsillar herniationchiari malformation (often presents w/ progressive hydrocephalus or syringomyelia)
Chronic arrhythmiaAtrial fibrillation (associated w/ high risk of emboli)
Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)


Question Answer
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vaginaDES exposure in utero
Compression fractureOsteoporosis (type I: postmenopausal woman; type II: elderly man or woman)
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension21-hydroxylase deficiency
Congenital cardiac anomalyVSD
Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin in bile)
Constrictive pericarditisTuberculosis (developing world); SLE (developed world)
Coronary artery involved in thrombosisLAD > RCA > LCA
CretinismIodine deficit/hypothyroidism
Cushing's syndrome1. corticosteroid therapy
2: excess ACTH secretion by pituitary
3: small cell lung carcinoma
Cyanosis (early; less common)Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus
Cyanosis (late; more common)VSD, ASD, PDA
Death in CMLBlast crisis
Death in SLELupus nephropathy
Dementia1. Alzheimer's
2. Multiple infarcts
Demyelinating disease in young womenMultiple sclerosis
DICGm(-) sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burn trauma
Dietary deficitiron
Diverticulum in pharynxZenker's diverticulum (dx by barium swallow)
Ejection clickAo/PA stenosis
Esophageal cancerSCC (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (US)
Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)S. aureus, B. cereus
Glomerulonephritis (adults)Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)
Gynecologic malignancyEndometrial carcinoma (US); cervical carcinoma (worldwide)
Heart murmur, congenitalMitral valve prolapse
Heart valve in bacterial endocarditisMitral (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse), aortic (2nd affected in rheumatic fever)
Helminth infection (US)1. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
2: Ascariasis lumbricoides (giantworm)
Hematoma - epiduralRupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)
Hematoma - subduralRupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)


Question Answer
HemochromatosisMultiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes", and increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)
Hereditary bleeding disordervon Willebrand's disease
Hereditary harmless jaundiceGilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
HLA-B27Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis
Holosystolic murmurVSD, tricuspid or mitral regurgitation
Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasisVirchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)
Hypertension, 2*Renal disease
HypoparathyroidismAccidental excision during thyroidectomy
HypopituitarismPituitary adenoma (usually benign)
Infection 2* to blood transfusionHepatitis C
Infections in chronic granulomatous diseaseStaph aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus (catalase positive)
Kidney stones1. calcium = radiopaque
2. struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease-positive organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staph)
3. Uric acid = radiolucent
Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected L-->R becomes R-->L)Eisenmenger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)
Liver diseaseAlcoholic cirrhosis
Lysosomal storage diseaseGaucher's disease
Male cancerProstatic carcinoma
Malignancy associated w/ noninfectious feverHodgkin's lymphoma
Malignant skin tumorBasal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)
Mental retardation1. Down syndrome (trisomy 21)
2. Fragile X syndrome (CGG triplet repeat)
Metastases to boneBreast, lung, thyroid, testes, kidney, prostate
Metastases to brainLung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI
Metastases to liverColon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, lung
Mitochondrial inheritancedisease occurs in both male & female; inherited through females only
Mitral valve stenosisRheumatic heart disease
Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron diseaseALS
MyocarditisCoxsackie B


Question Answer
Neoplasm (kids)1. ALL
2. Cerebellar medulloblastoma
Nephrotic syndrome (adults)Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
Nephrotic syndrome (kids)Minimal change disease (associate w/ infections/vaccinations; tx w/ corticosteroids)
Neuron migration failureKallmann syndrome (defective development of GnRH cells and olfactory placode -> hypogonadism and anosmia
Nosocomial pneumoniaKlebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Obstruction of male urinary tractBPH
Opening snapMitral stenosis
Opportunistic infection in AIDSPneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
OsteomyelitisS. aureus
Osteomyelitis in sickle cell diseaseSalmonella
Osteomyelitis w/ IV drug usePseudomonas, S. aureus
Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancerKrukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)
Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)Serous cystadenoma
Ovarian tumor (malignant)Serous cystadenocarcinoma
Pancreatitis (acute)Gallstones, alcohol
Pancreatitis (chronic)Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)
Patient with ALL/CLL/AML/CMLALL: child
CLL: adult >60
AML ~60
CML: adult 30-60
Pelvic inflammatory diseaseNeisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)
Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl)CML (may sometimes be associated w/ ALL/AML)
Pituitary tumor1. Prolactinoma
2. Somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma
Primary amenorrheaTurner syndrome (45XO)
Primary bone tumor (adults)Multiple myeloma
Primary hyperaldosteronism1. Adenoma of adrenal cortex (Conn's syndrome)
2. Adrenal hyperplasia
Primary hyperparathyroidism1. Adenomas
2. Hyperplasia
3. Carcinoma
Primary liver cancerHepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, α1-antitrypsin def)
Pulmonary hypertensionCOPD
Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremitiesBuerger's disease (strongly associated w/ tobacco, aka thromboangiitis obliterans)
Renal tumorRenal cell carcinoma: associated w/ von Hippel-Lindau & adult polycystic kidney disease; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)
R-heart failure due to a pulmonary causeCor pulmonale


Question Answer
S3 (protodiastolic gallop)↑ ventricular filling (L-->R shunt, mitral regurg, LV failure [CHF])
S4 (presystolic gallop)stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (usually LV) [aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy]
Secondary hyperparathyroidismHypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
Sexually transmitted diseaseChlamydia (usually coinfected w/ gonorrhea)
SIADHSmall cell carcinoma of the lung
Site of diverticulaSigmoid colon
Site of atherosclerosisAbdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid
Stomach cancerAdenocarcinoma
Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levelsZollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)
t(14;18)Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
t(8;14)Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
t(9;22)Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)
Temporal arteritisRisk of ipsilateral blindess due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica
Testicular tumorSeminoma
Thyroid cancerPapillary carcinoma
Tumor in womenLeiomyoma/uterine fibroids (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)
Tumor of infancyHemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)Neuroblastoma (malignant)
Type of Hodgkin'sNodular sclerosing [65%] (vs. mixed cellularity [25%], lymphocytic predominant [6%], lymphocytic depletion [rare])
Type of non-Hodgkin'sDiffuse large cell
UTI1. E. coli
2. Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)
Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobeHSV-1
Vitamin deficiency (U.S.)Folic acid (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3-4 mo supply; prevents neural tube defects)