First Aid Rapid Review 1 Classic Presentations Jr Part 9

hysteresis's version from 2016-01-12 05:01


Question Answer
Meiotic Non-DisjunctionDown Syndrome
Robertsonian translocationRare Downsyndrome due to break near the centromere of two chromosomes
Expansion of Trinucleotide RepeatsHuntingtionCAG, Myotonic DystrophyCTG, Fragile X syndromeCGG, FriedRich AtaxiaGAA
Formation of fragile siteFragile X Syndrome
Inactivation of one ChromosomePrader-Willi(15) and AngelMan syndromes
Deletion of chromosomal partCri-du-chat(5p), Digeorge(22q11), Prader-Willi
Reliabilty or PrecisionReproducing the similar effect with fixed entitey
AccuracyMeeting somewhere around the gold standard test
Farmer confused, disoriented, low bp, wheezing, skin flushed, sweatingOrganophosphate poisoning - WITH cholinesterase inhibtor
Tx Atropine or Pralidoxime(Muscle Rigidity)
Elderly, Abdominal pain in waves, nausea vomiting, mass at ileocecal valve, AiR iN BiLiARy TrEECholestrol stone(Cant see)
Oocyte when bornProphase of Meiosis I
Oocyte at puberty till fertilizationMetaphase at Meiosis II
Sudden Severe or Thunderclapping or worst headache of my life.
2-25mm. Circle of willis,Anterior & Posterior communicating, Middle cerebral
Subarachnoid due to Sacullar(Berry) aneurysms due to ED,ADPKD, Atriovenous malformation
Epigastric pain and vomiting due to binge drinking, 4-6weeks later palpable upper abdominal massPancreatic Pseudocyst(Granulation tissue with no epithelial lining)
Heat Killed bacteriaBordetell pertussis, Vibrio Cholerae, Yersinia Pestis
Bacterial outer surfaceBorrelia Burgdorferi
Inactivated Toxin toxoidClostridium & Corynebacterium
Legs like sticks, Belly getting bigger, Loss of adipose from extremites but all in stomach (Steroids or Antiretroviral)HIV
High chloride content in sweat boyAbnormal Post translational processing of transmembrane protein ->CFTR DEGRADED = Missense Mutation
SurfactantLetchin(Phosphatidylcholine) is higher and comes first before sphingomyelin
Patient comes in with tremor, during daily activites, Alcohol helps the tremor, Family history of tremorEssential Tremor(Familial tremor) proponolol
Fever abdominal pain, right quadrant rebound tenderness, periappendicial abcessBacteroides Fragilis OR E.coli
Abcess in cervicofacial regionActinomyces israelli
Proximal Bowel abcessCandida Albicans
Amebic Liver AbcessE.Histolyica
CricothyrotomySkin -> Superficial Cervical Fascia -> Pretracheal Fascia -> Cricothyroid Membrane
Life Long pattern of suspiciousnessParanoid Personality
Brief Psychotic, Schizophreniform, SchizophrenicLess than 1 Month, 1-6Months, >6
Abnormal Prominence of the inferior scapular angle(winged scapula)Long thoracic nerve injury-> Serratous Anterior -> Mastectomy
Mother, swelling pain in proximal interphalangeal wrist and knee, 5 yr old son had facial rash and fever, RF -, Fathero gout+, Mother Rf+Parvoirus Arthritis
Suspect tetanusHistory and Physical Examination Best and first management
Young African American, Heamturia, Hb A 60%+,Hb S40%Heterozygote Sickle Cell trait and aplastic crisis, sequestration crisis, malaraia FREE
Female, Upper abdominal pain, vomiting, fever, inflamed and partially necrotic gallbladderDue to gallblader outflow obstruction
Old smoker, Pain beneath scapula, ipsilateral arm weakness OR Horner sign OR edema of upper extremityPancoast Syndrome at the Superior Sulcus Tumor
Abdominal discomfort, Large amounts of alcohol recently, Liver FattyDecreased free fatty oxidiation, Increased Triglyceride, Increased peripheral fat catabolism, Impaired lipoprotein assembly
Young , Low back pain with morning stiffness, inflammation and early fusion of the sacroilliac joints(Bamboospine)Ankylosing spndylitis(Specific HLAB27 Class 1 Subtype), Chest Expansion
Pt after surgery, Agitated and tremulous, 3-4beers a day, bp high, pulse HighAlcohol Withdrawal(Diazepam)
Fulmiant hepatits in a pregnant women with increase mortalityUnenveloped RNA virus from hepe family called Hepatitis E
Less than 3 month old baby, fever, poor feeding, irritability, csf studies, gramnegative rods , Pink colonies in McConkeyEcoli(Capsule-virulence factor)
Pt Fell on outstretched hands, Shoulder pain, Flattening of deltoid muscle, insensitivity with pin prickAnterior dislocation of humerus(Axillary Nerve)
Infant, swelling childs neck, feeds well but on one sideIntrauterine Malposition(Congenitial Torticollis)
Elderly male, dies of extensive MI, STERILE non destructive vegetations along mitral leafletTrousseau Syndrome = Adenocarcinomas of the pancreas or lung
ADVANCED AGE male, multiple small lobar hemorrhages, sudden arm weakness, NO HYPERTENSIONCerebral Amlyoid Angiopathy(low mortality)
Young boy, fever chills rash, sore throat two days ago(Pharingitis), diffuse erythematous rash on his chest and abdomen blanches with pressure(ScarletSpots), gray white tonsillar, tongue bright redRheumatic Fever sequele - Acute - Mitral Regurg/ Chronic - Mitral Stenosis(A2 to opening snap time used to ascess degree of stenosis) Murmur due to Bacterial human epitope homology
Severe Right upper abdominal pain, gallblader has 5% cholestrol stones BUT BLACK stonesDue to chronic extravascular Hemolysis
Elderly, Acute confusional state, Impaired memory or function, anxiety, agitation, delusions, hallucinationsDelirium
Desynchronization between the P waves and QRS complex. Pacing done by?Third Degree Block (Atrioventricular Node)
Joint Pain, Swelling, Stiffness, Proximal Interphalangeal, MetacarpoPhalangeal Bilaterally involved, Nodules on elbowRheumatoid Arthritis (IgM Antibodies that react with Fc portion of IgG
Patient takes antipsychotic pills, Amenorrhea, Breasts are engorged(Galactorrhea), PathwayTuberoinfundibular
Schizophrenic Patient, Antipsychotic medications, Pathway regulating behaviorMesolimbic Mesocortical Pathway(Frontal Cortex)
Parkinson, coordination of voluntary movementsNigrostriatial system neurons from Substania Nigra to caudate nucleus & putamen
Weakness, Dizziness, Paresthesias, Ate a fish from japanese restaurant, reduced muscle tendon reflexTetrodotoxin puffer fish(Prevent sodium influx & Depolarization in nerve and cardiac tissue)
Intense perianaL itching, Celluose or Scotch tape, tape has eggsEnterobius Vermicularis (Mebendazole)
Harsh systolic murmur, Sudden death, asymmteric hypertrophy, Murmur increased? (HCM)Decrease in LV end diastolic volume(Sudden standing)
African american with sickle cell anemia, dyspnea, Aplastic Crisis?ParvoB19 virus (Non enveloped single Stranded DNA virus)
Fatigue(Anemia), Chronic back pain(Bone lytic lesions), Mild HyperCalcemia, wagon wheel or clock face cell nucleiMutiple Myeloma -> Risk of Amyloidosis
Membranous Nephropathy(Hypercoagulable state), Sudden onset flank pain and hematuria, Left sided variocele, Urinary loss of?Antithrombin III & proteinuria (Renal Vein Thrombosis)
Female, Lower abdominal discomfort, Uterus is enlarged, Normal Endometrial glands withing myometrium, Menorrhagia, DysmenorrheaAdenomyosis
Knee pain & sweeling unilateral, Joint aspirate Shows no bacteria, A history of recent dirrheal illnessReactive Arthritis(Histocompatibility HLA-B27)
Back Pain after lifting, Pain in Posterior thigh and posterior calf shooting down to the foot, Normal knee reflex, Diminished Ankle ReflexSciatic Neuropathy(L5)
Pain strictly in posterior thigh and calf shooting down to foot, weakness of plantar flexion and LOSS of ankle jerk reflexSciatic Neuropathy (S1)
15 Year contraceptive use, purulent urethrits history treated with ceftriaxone, Infertile?PID ( Gonoorhea & Chlamydia) Ceftriaxone and Azithromycin
Gardner, roofer,knee pain, swelling, inabilty to flex the knee, tnderness, rednessPrepatellar bursa
SLE patient on medications, truncal obesity, hirsutism, hyperglycemia, dies of thrombusBilateral Adrenocortical Atrophy due to Exongenous Corticosteroids
Big baby, Hypoglycemic, treated with insulin during pregnancy, Cause of Hypoglycemia?Diffuse Hyperplasia of Islets(Mother was having gestational diabetes)
Pt with iron deficiency anemia, menstrual cycle, gingival bleeding, Platelets aggregate normal to ADP but not RISTOCETINvon Willebrand factor vs gIIB/IIIA(Glanzmann thrombasthenia) Abnormal ADP
Pt with Kaysher Fleser Rings, chronic hepatits, corneal changesBasal Ganglia Atrophy(Wilsons)
Truck driver, sudden dyspnea, fat, smokes, drinks, calf swellingPulmonary Embolism (Hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis - Increase Ph, Decrease PaO2 & PaCO2)
Young Pt, Several episodes of syncope, decreased outward K flowPolymorphic ventricular tachycardia(Torsades de Pointes)
Infant born with abdominal distension, vomiting, blood streaked stools, 27 weeks gestation, premature birth, thin curvilinear areas of lucency that parallel the bowel wall lumenNecrotizing Enterocolitis
Pt treated for agitation and aggressive behavior, Later develops Fever, Confusion, Muscle rigidityNeuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Bilateral paresthesias of her thumbs and index fnger, Hemodialysis ptDialysis Associated Carpal tunnel syndrome
Pt treated with Opiod and develops suddenly abdominal pain, rightupper quadrant tendrenessOpiod Induced Biliary Colic(Smooth Muscle)
Young pts with recurrent otits media, sinusitis, cardiac point of maximal impulse at the right fifth intercoastel spaceKartagener Syndrome(Dynein Defect)
Pt having sever heartburn, fingertip Ulceration, Multiple TelangiectasisCREST(Heartburn due to fibrous replacement of muscularis)
Young pt with fever, vomiting, bilateral conjunctivitis, bright red tongue, cracked lips, desquamation of skin on fingertipsKawasaki Disease(Risk of Coronary Artery Aneurysm)
Pts presents with weakness and paresthesis, high BP, Low plasma Renin, Normal Serum CreatineHyperAldosteronism Normal Sodium, Low K, High Bicarb
Where in our body do we the most deoxygenated blood?Coronary Sinus
Pt complains of decreased hearing in both earsOrgan of Corti
Pt has progressive, fatigue, and diplopia, bilateral ptosis, pt on neostigmine, edrophonium test helps pts muscle strengthIncrease Dose on neostigmine
35 yr old Pt has jaundice and dyspnea, had prolonged jaundice soon after birth, Does not smoke, Hyperlucency of lung fields and flattening of DiaphragmsAlpha1 Antitrypsin deficiency in pts no smoking history presenting with COPD
Refractory Peptic ulceration and Diarrhea, Fasting gastrin levels increased, Mutiple organ diseaseMEN 1(Pancreatic Tumor- Gastrin, Pituatry Adenoma, Parathryoid Tumor)
Kidney Transplant a year ago, chest pain and cough, Mucicarmine stainingCryptococcus Neoformans
Strongest Risk factor for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Multiple Sexual Partners
History of Abdominal discomfort, greasy stool and weight loss, joint pain, Intestinal biopsy shows small intestine mucosa enlarged with Multiple foamy macrophages loaded with PAS POSITIVE granules in the lamina propriaTropheryma Whippelli(Antibiotics)
Infant vomiting, and refusal to feed, greenish yellow color vomit, abscense of large segment of small bowelApple Peel Atresia due to vascular occlusion
Impaired vision, rapid dementia and myclonic jerks, coma and dies fast, many uniform vacuoles between neuron cell bodies and in the perikaryon neuronsCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease
PT with CHF or hypertension and osteoporosisHydrochlorothiazide
Colonic Mass, peomorphic cells, large dark nuclei, irregular, crowded glands, contain mucusColon cancer(Rectosigmoid)
History of Type 2 diabetes, increased blood glucose, Metformin, Hemoglobin A2 increasedBeta Thalassemia Trait
Slowest to Fastest ConductionAtrial Muscle, AV node, Purkinje System, Ventricular Muscle
Pt with chronic fatigability, weight gain, myalgia, proximal muscle weakness, elevated creatine KinaseHypothyroidism(Thyroid functioning test)
Internal Hemorrhage, defect in elastin associated gylcoprotein in lens, periosteum, and the aortic MediaMarfans Syndrome
Respiratory Infection at a military recruit center, cough low grade fever, pulmonary xray worse than the way PT looks. Cholestrol mediumMycoplasma Pneumoniae
Least vulnerable from infarctionLiver-Spleen-Kidny-Heart-Brain
Night Blindness and tunnel vision, pruritus, skin is very dryProlonged Biliary Obstruction due to Vit A def.
Newborn, Jaundice, dark urine, light colored stools, Liver enlarged on palpitation, interhepatic cholestasis, proliferation of bile ductsBiliary Atresia
Sever pain right lower abdominal quadrant, vaginal bleeding, period 7 weeks ago, LOW bp, Tachycardia, pale and clammy, History of PIDEctopic Pregnancy(Decidualized endometrium with NO chorionic Villi)
African American, treated with sulfadrug for acute prostatitis but develops dark urine, high reticulocyte countG6PD deficiency(Hereditary Erythrocyte enzyme Deficiency)
LOW pH, LOW oxygen(unloading), LOW blood volume, and HIGH 2,3-dpg, Sickle Cell aggregation due to Anoxia
Infant, low hemoglobin, nucleated erythrocytes, hepatomegaly, generalized edema, extramedulallry hematopoiesis and diesErythroblastosis Fetalis(Maternal Antibody mediated RBC lysis)
Most commonly injured rotator cuffSupra sinatius cant Abduct the humerus
Pt lump in the neck, cigarettesmoker, translocation of 14:18Follicular Lymphoma (bcl2 overexpression)
F- 4
Young pt, syncope not on exertion, no medications, QT prolongation, Membrane Potassium channel mutationJervell lange nielson syndrome(deafness) & Romano ward syndrome
Gram+ Bacteria syntheize dextrans from sucroseViridans streptococci - Fibrin Platelet Aggregation
Fever, Confusion, Nausea, a history of anesthesia or Laparotomy, Elevated AST/ ALT and bilirubin levelMassive Hepatic Necrosis due to halothane
Drug given which prolong PR interveal and the QTSotalol
Hemoptysis,Sinusitis&mucosal granuloma, (Hematuria/oliguria/Hypertension)Wegeners CRESENTIC Glomerulonephritis
Most common Benign Liver tumor, Cavernous, blood filled vascular spaces of variable size lined by a single epithelial layerCavernous Hemangioma (fatalhemorrhage)
Tall, Thin, young adultmales, Unilateral chest painSpontaneous Pneumothorax (Rupture of Apical subpleural blebs)
Infant with H.Influenza and otits media, Uptodate immunizationNontypable(No capsule)
Meningitis, Disseminated disease, Penumonia, EpiglottisH.Influenza Type B(Capsular)
Azoospermia, Family History of Respiratory Infection death, Bilateral vas deferens missingCystic Fibrosis (Abnormal Sweat chloride & sodium or Abdnormal Nasal transepithelial difference)
Trauma or sustained pressure on the neck or head of Fibula, CANT DORSIFLEXCommon Peroneal Nerve
Bone PAIN, Fatigue(ANEMIA), Constipation(HYPERCALCEMIA), Renal Failure(Azotema), Large Fake eosinophilic casts in Kidney Tubular(Bence Jones protein)Multiple Myeloma
African American, Sickle cell, fever chills malaise, hypotensive dies due to septiciemaSHiNE SKiE