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First Aid - Protozoa, Helminths, Zoonotics, Randoms

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zoyogasa's version from 2016-04-14 00:32

Protozoa

PictureOrganismTransmissionDxTxNotes
Giardia lambliacysts in water

oral-anal sex
Giardiasis
(bloating, flatulence,
foul-smelling, fatty
diarrhea)


campers/hikers
trophozoites or
cysts in stool
Metronidazole

GET GAP
in Metro
Entamoeba histolyticacysts in waterAmebiasis
(bloody diarrhea,
liver abscess, RUQ pain)
trophozoites or cysts in stoolMetronidazole
& Lumenal agent

GET GAP
in Metro
Cryptosporidumcysts in waterSevere Diarrhea
in AIDS ptx
cyst on
acid-fast stain (stool)
Nitazoxanide
Toxoplasma gondiicysts in meat
or cat feces


pregnant women
= avoid cats
Brain abscess in HIV
ring enhancing lesion
(triad = chorioretinitis,
hydrocephalus,
intracranial calcifications)


mono-syndrome
Naegleria fowleriswimming in
freshwater lakes,
enters via
cribriform plate
Rapidly Fatal MeningoencephalitisAmoebas in
spinal fluid
Trypanosoma bruceiTeste fly
painful bite
African Sleeping
Sickness

(large lymph nodes,
recurring fever, coma)
look at blood
Plasmodium

P. vivax/ovale
P. falciparum
P. malariae
MosquitoMalaria
(fever, headache,
anemia, splenomegaly)


P.vivax/ovale = fever
every other day
(48 hr cycle), liver
P. falciparum = severe,
irregular fever, RBCs
P. malariae= 72 hr cycle,
fever every 3 days
blood smear

trophozoite ring

RBCs have schizont

Vivax - schuffner dots
malariae - bands
Chloroquine
Mefloquine if resistant


severe = IV
Quinidine


Vivax/ovale - add
Primaquine for
hypnozoite in liver
BabesiaIxodes Tick
(same as Borrelia
burgdorferi = lyme
disease)
Babesiosis
(fever, hemolytic anemia)

~NorthEast US
look at blood smear,
ring form and
Maltese cross


Tetrad
~Clindamycin
Trypanosoma
cruzi
Reduviid bug
"kissing bug"
painless bite
Chagas Disease
(dilated cardiomyopathy,
megacolon, megaesophagus)


South America
look at blood
Leshmania donovanisandflyVisceral Leishmaniasis
(kala-azar)

(spiking fevers,
hepatosplenomegaly,
pancytopenia)


non-healing ulcers!
Trichomonas vaginalissex
(can not form cysts)
Vaginitis
(foul smell,
GREEN discharge)


Gardenerella vaginalis =
bacteria that causes
VAGINOSIS
Trophozoites
(motile)
on wet mount
Metronidazole

GET GAP
in Metro
memorize

Malaria life cycle

Question Answer
Anopheles mosquito injects this form into bloodSporozoite
Replication intracellularlySchizont
Ruptures the cell hostMerozoite
Looks like a diamond shapeTropozoite
Banana-shaped
?itok=hzsXovAU
Gametocyte of Plasmodium falcipurum
memorize

Helminths

Nematodes (roundworms) (Tx = Bendazole)
OrganismTransmissionDiseaseTx
Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs (ingested)Anal itching, Scotch Tape TestBendazole
Giant Round worm (Ascaris lumbricoides)fecal-oral (ingested)intestine infectionBendazole
Hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator)penetrate skin of feetanemia caused by worms sucking blood from intestine wallsBendazole
Wuchereria bandroftifemale mosquito blocks lymphs elephantiatisDiethylcarbamazine
memorize

 

Cestodes (tapeworms) (Tx = Praziquantel)
OrganismTransmissionDiseaseTx
Taenia soliumundercooked pork/eggsintestinal infection or cystocerosis/neurocyticerosis (cyst in CNS)Praziquantel
Diphyllobothriumraw freshwater fishVit B12 deficiency = anemiaPraziquantel
Echinococcus granulosuseggs or dog fecescysts in liverBendazole
memorize

 

Trematodes (flukes aka flatworms) (Tx = Praziquantel)
Question Answer Column 3 Column 4
Schistosomasnailsliver & spleen granulomas, inc risk of bladder cancerPraziquantel
Clonorhis sinesisundercooked fishbiliary tract inflammation --> pigmented gallsotnes, cholangiocarcinomaPraziquantel
Paragonimus westermaniundercooked crab meatlung inflammation + HemoptysisPraziquantel
memorize

 

FindingsOrganism
Brain cysts, seizuresTaenia solium (cysticercosis)
Liver cystsEchinococcus granulosus
Vitamin B12 deficiencyDiphyllobothrium latum
Biliary tract disease, cholangiocarcinomaClonorchisis sinensis
HemoptysisParagonimus westermani
Portal HypertensionSchistosoma mansoni
Hematuria, bladder cancerSchistosoma haematobium
Microcytic anemiaAncylostoma, Necator
Perianal pruritusEnterobius
memorize

Parasite & Worm drugs

Question Answer
Giardia, Entamoeba, TrichomonasMentronidazole (GET GAP in metro)
Plasmodium MalariaChloroquine
Plasmodium vivax or ovaleChloroquine + Primaquine
Chagas disease (Trypasoma cruzi)Nifurtimox
African sleeping sickness (Trypasoma brucei)Suramin = for blood, Melarsoprol = for CNS
LeshmaniasisSodium Stibogluconate
ToxoplasmaSulfadiazine
Roundworms, pinworms, hookwormsBendazole
All flukes & TapewormsPraziquantel
memorize

Zoonotic bacteria

BugVectorDisease
Bartonellacat scratchCat scratch disease “bart your cat scratched me”
Pasturelladog/cat biteCellulitis, osteomyletis
Camplybacterpuppiesbloody diarrhea
Leptospiraanimal urineLeptospirosis
Coxiella burnettianimal amniotic fluidQ Fever
Mycobacterium lepraearmadillosLeprosy
Francisella tularensisrabbitsTularemia “rabbits eating tulips”
Chlamydia psittaciParrots/birdPsittacosis
Borrelia burgdorferiIxodesLyme disease (also Babesia)
Borrelia recurrentisLiceRecurrent fever
Rickettsia prowazekiiLiceEndemic typhus
Ehrlicia chaffeensisLone star tickEhrlichiosis
Rickettsia typhiFleasEpidemic typhus
Yersinia pestisFleasPlague
Brucellaunpasteurized dairy/cheeseBrucellosis
memorize

Randoms

Question Answer Column 3
Leptospira interroganswater contaminated w/ animal urineflu, jaundice, photophobia w/ conjunctivitis, question-mark shaped bug
Weil’s disease (icterohemorrhagi leptospirosis)jaundice + azotemia from liver and kidney failure → fever, hemorrhage, anemia after drinking contaminated water (animal urine)
memorize