First Aid Knowledge

yaboiemil's version from 2016-01-30 18:17

Section 1

Question Answer
The Heartrate of a 3y/o100 bpm
Anaphylactic reaction is characterised byRash, Breathing Difficulty, Tachycardia, Swelling
Ecchymosisthe escape of blood into the tissues from ruptured blood vessels (not necessarily from trauma)
Tachycardiaan abnormally rapid heart rate.
Bradycardiaan abnormally slow heart rate.
Normal heart rate100bpm
Arrhythmiaa condition in which the heart beats with an irregular or abnormal rhythm.

Section 2

Question Answer
Normal blood pressure120/80 mm Hg
Arterial Bleeding from the neck artery is stopped by:Direct pressure in the wound, pressure held throughout transport
Basic Vital Signs are:Breathing, Circulation, Conciousness
Before using any chemical you shouldUse barriers precautions (e.g. gloves), read the instructions (possible first aid)
Cardiac Arrest in children compared with adults is more commonlySecondary (hypoxia and suffocation precedes)
Hypoxiadeficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues
Anoxiaan absence or deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissues; severe hypoxia.
Cooling water in burns:Cool no more than 5% of the affected area, even if burn is more extensive. No specific cooling temp. Cool for a minimum of 10min.
CPR in childrencompress lower half of sternum, perform for 1min before calling EMS unless 2+ rescuers
Correct depth of chest compressions in children is1/3 of depth of chest

Section 3

Question Answer
Do not interrupt CPR until...Victim starts to wake up and breathe normally, Professional help arrives and takes over
Symptoms of epileptic seizure:Urine/fecal incontinence, Clonic seizures, Tonic Seizures, Unconciousness.
Clonic Seizuresuncontrolled jerking.
Tonic Seizures the body becomes entirely rigid,
First Aid for Epileptic SeizuresMonitor for vital signs, if recovery delayes/seizures reoccur call ambulance. remove dangerous objects.
First Aid for Thermal woundcool with cold water ASAP. Avoid cooling with water if burn is large (>10% of body SA)
First Aid in Heat ExhaustionMove casualty to cold place, give him cold drink and cold pack on head
First Aid after ingestion of acidDilute stomach contents with water, call EMS
First task in an emergency?Check if there is danger
Frosted AreasWarm them with tepid and then warm water. Do not warm if serious risk of refrosting.

Section 4

Question Answer
Person suffering from haemmorhagical shock shouldBe placed on their back with legs raised
Infant choking (FBAO)Coughing, wheezing sounds heard. Perform 5 back blows.
How many joints must be immobilized for fracture treatment2, one above and one below
A in ABC Algorithm?Airways - open mouth check for obstructions
B in ABC Algorithm?Breathing - Head tilt chin lift, look listen and feel
C in ABC Algorithm?Circulation - Difficult to check. GOod signs are conciousness, movt, breathing. Any doubt = NO CIRCULATION
BLS for children breath:compression ratio?2 Rescue Breaths: 15 Compressions
Mouth to Mouth is considered effective IF...The chest is rising
Unresponsive and not breathing normally, consider patient to be...In cardiac arrest
First Aid for Nosebleed:Placed sitting with head forward and nose pinched
Change person doing compressions every....2 mins to prevent rescuer fatigue

Section 5

Question Answer
Poisonous Snake bite...Promptly refer victim to hospital. Suction wound by mouth.
Where to put hands during chest compressions?Centre of victims chest, lower half of sternum, between nipples
First aid for FOAB?Encourage coughing. Give 5 Back Blows. Perform 5 Abdominal Thrusts. If becomes unresponsive, start CPR.
Signs of Fracture?Swelling/Bleeding. Severe Pain. Deformity. Difficulty in Movt.
Triggers for Asthma?Cigarette Smoke, Cold, Allergy, Extremes of Temperature.
StuporUnconcious victim, does not respond to voice or touch, opens eyes and moves limbs for pain.
Alcohol Intoxication IncludeLoss of social boundaries, Impaired conciousness, Vasodilation, Faster chilling, Euphoria.
Carbon Monoxide PoisoningCherry Red or Pale Skin, Headache, nausea.
Cardiac Arrest in Adults is likely to bedue to a primary cardiac cause
Dont make laypeople...Do rescue breaths if they dont want/cant.
No movement or sensation in lower extremities...Call EMS, Patient Probably has cervical spine injury.

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