orlando005's version from 2017-12-04 18:47

Section 1

Question Answer
Which of the following is not one of the main goals of contemporary sentencing? Restitution
The just deserts model of sentencing emphasizes… retribution
Which of the following is a characteristic of restorative justice? Crime has individual and social dimensions of responsibility.
Critics of the indeterminate model of sentencing emphasizes all but which key sentencing principle? Just deserts.
_____ is a type of sentencing plan that allows no leeway in the imposition of a sentence for a person convicted of a crime. Mandatory Sentencing.
Which goal of sentencing focuses on separating offenders from society to reduce opportunities for further criminality?Incapacitation
Justice reinvestment emphasizes the use of alternative sanctions, rather than incarceration, for nonviolent offenders. True
The “nothing works” doctrine suggested that rehabilitation did not reduce recidivism. True
The indeterminate sentencing model can result in judicial discrimination based on the offender’s race or social class. True
Which country executes more people than the rest of the world combined?China
Incapacitation corresponds to the just deserts model of sentencing. False
Which of the following requires that a prison be brought before a judicial officer to determine if he or she is being lawfully imprisoned? Writ of habeas corpus.
What is the main limitation of the Crime Victims’ Right Act? It only provides rights to victims of federal crimes.
Which one of the following is not a traditional sentencing option? Parole
Which sentencing model tends to involve the greatest amount of judicial discretion?indeterminate sentencing.
General deterrence attempts to… discourage potential offenders from committing crimes.
If a judge requests information on a convicted defendant’s background, the probation or parole office will conduct a… presentence investigation.
Proportionally means that… there should be a direct relationship between the severity of the sanction and the seriousness of the crime.
Research into victim-impact statements has found that… sentencing decisions are rarely affected by them.
Presentence investigations are conducted by the court. False
Robert Martinson’s “nothing-works” doctrine was an attack on… Treatment
The emphasis on individual responsibility was a key characteristic of the ____ model.Justice
The purpose of mutilation as a punishment for criminal behavior is specific deterrence. True
Lex talionis is also known as the law of… Retaliation
Why did some inmates oppose the treatment model? They were not given a choice in treatment participation
According to the U.S. Supreme Court, overcrowding in prison constitutes cruel and unusual punishment. False
The stocks and the pillory are examples of what early form of punishment? Public humiliation
Federal correctional institutions are primarily medium security facilities. False
The modern practice of parole has its origins in the work of which reformer?Captain Alexander Maconochie
The ___ was an early American system of imprisonment that was considered to be humane and that provided inmates with the opportunity for rehabilitation.Pennsylvania System
Work release is representative of which era in the development of U.S. prisons? The community-based era
The first mass prison system, in which inmates lived, ate, and worked together in enforced silence, was known as the ___ system. Auburn
Prison industries today are limited to state-use systems only. False
____ seeks to identify the most dangerous criminals and incarcerate them to protect society. Selective Incapacitation.
A prison’s rated capacity refers to the size of the inmate population that it can handle, according to the judgment of experts. True
The ___ model of corrections emphasized indeterminate sentencing and rehabilitation. Reformatory
The typical American prison today is a maximum-security institution. False
The “nothing-works” doctrine contributed to a move away from rehabilitation.True
The ADMAX unit is the most high-security federal correctional institution. True
Which of the following prison programs is most characteristic of the just-deserts era of corrections? Chain gangs.

Section 2

Question Answer
Illicit drug use tends to be most common among which age group?18 to 20 year olds
Which anti-drug strategy authorizes the seizure of any illicit proceeds from crimes relating to illicit drugs? Asset Forfeiture
A ____ is a person who uses drugs relatively infrequently and in social contexts that define drug use as pleasurable. Recreational drug use
_____ are synthetic psychoactive substances often found at “raves” and dance parties. Club drug
_____ involves efforts aimed at stopping drugs from entering the United States. Interdiction
Which strategy for attacking the drug problem may lead to greater long term problems including possibly increasing crime by keeping drug prices higher than they would otherwise be?Strict law enforcement.
The position of “Drug Czar” was created under which U.S. President? Reagan
The number of women incarcerated for drug crimes is increasing at a faster rate than men.True
Heroin is the most dangerous commonly-used drug in the United States. False
_____ is a federal act that included legislation focusing on controlling substances such as pseudoephedrine, which is found in over-the-counter cold medicines and which can be used in the manufacture of methamphetamine. The USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization of 2006
Drug traffickers tend to structure their transactions to be below $10,000 to avoid bank reporting requirements.True
Employment status is correlated with rates of current illicit drug use.True
A biologically-based craving for a specific drug that results from frequent use of the substance is known as… physical dependence
Stealing prescription medicines for recreational drug use is known as…psychoactive control
The most dangerous commonly used illicit drug in the U.S. is…Cocaine
____ technology is used to search cargo and luggage for particles left behind when narcotics and explosives contraband are packaged and handled. Trace detection.
____ includes criminal offenses committed through the use of altered genetic material. Bio-crime
Illegally harvesting medical organs for transplantation is a type of bio-crime.True
Which criminalistics technique is used to reconstruct the likeness of a decomposed or dismembered body?Forensic anthropology
____ involves recognizing people by physical characteristics and personal traits. Biometrics
____ is a form of high-technology fraud that uses official-looking e-mail messages to direct victims to phony websites. Phishing
Alphonse Bertillon was responsible for creating the first…modern system of personal identification
The study of insect behavior to determine the time of death of a corpse is called… forensic entomology
The most expensive security incidents involve financial fraud. True
____ applies scientific techniques to the detection and evaluation of criminal evidence. Criminalistics
A crime that employs advanced or emerging technology in its commission is known as a cybercrime. False
____ attempt(s) to duplicate the decision-making processes used by skilled investigators in evidence analysis and pattern recognition. Expert Systems.
Illegally copying a software program is known as software… piracy
____ includes computer worms and Trojan horses. Malware
____ is a nontechnical type of cyber intrusion tricking people into breaking security procedures, such as persuading them to give out password details. Social engineering.

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