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Final Semester 3

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juniperk's version from 2017-12-11 02:08

Section

Question Answer
What is the treatment for Truncus Arteriosus? defects? Symptoms?A. Pulmonary artery and aorta do not separate. B. One main vessel receives blood from the left and right ventricles together. C. Blood mixes in right and left ventricles through a large VSD, resulting in cyanosis. D. Increased pulmonary resistance results in increased cyanosis. E. This congenital defect requires surgical correction; only the presence of the large VSD allows for survival at birth
What is the tetralogy of Fallot? treatment? Symptoms?Pulmonic stenosis, VSD, overriding aorta, and rt ventricular hypertrophy. Surgery. Tx for a tet spell: calm approach, knee to chest, O2, morphine, IV fluids, propranolol IV. Cyanosis, increased H&H.
What is Transposition of the Great Vessels? Treatment? Symptoms?A. The great vessels are reversed. B. The pulmonary circulation arises from the left ventricle, and the systemic circulation arises from the right ventricle. C. This is incompatible with life unless coexisting VSD, ASD, and/or PDA is present. D. The diagnosis is a medical emergency. The child is given prostaglandin
ASD? treatment? symptoms?n abnormal opening between the atria that causes an increased flow of oxygenated blood into the right side of the heart. s/s Decreased peripheral pulses Exercise intolerance Feeding difficulties Hypotension Irritability, restlessness, lethargy Oliguria Pale, cool extremities Tachycardia. Close on own or surgery (suture, patch)
Coarctation of the aorta? Tx? symptoms?Left ventricular hypertension .Narrowing of the aorta causes increased resistance to left ventricular outflow resulting in elevated systolic pressure. Upper extremity hypertension. Lower extremity BP lower than the upper body BP. S/S Epitaxis due to HTN. HA. leg pain with activity, fainting. Tx: Balloon angioplasty, prostaglandin
PDA? Tx? symptoms?Failure to close artery connecting the aorta and the pulmonary artery. machinery-like murmur is present. TX Indomethacin (Indocin), a prostaglandin inhibitor, may be administered to close a patent ductus in premature infants and some newborns. b. The defect may be closed during cardiac catheterization, or the defect may require surgical management. Watch for clots.
5 Assessment of Rheumatic fever?1. Fever: Low-grade fever that spikes in the late afternoon 2. Elevated antistreptolysin O titer 3. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate 4. Elevated C-reactive protein level 5. inquiring about a recent sore throat because rheumatic fever manifests 2 to 6 weeks after an untreated or partially treated group A beta-hemolytic strep infection of the upper respiratory tract.
Which area is being paced with the different spikes?; a spike preceding a P wave indicates that the atrium is paced and a spike preceding the QRS indicates that the ventricle is being paced.
PAD is relieved by placing leg in what position?Dependent
What is Raynaud’s disease and tx?Vasospasm of the arterioles and arteries of the upper and lower extremities. Attacks are intermittent and occur with exposure to cold or stress. a. Monitor pulses. b. Administer vasodilators as prescribed
How often is aPTT measured?Activated partial thromboplastin time therapy should be measured every 4 to 6 hours during initial continuous infusion therapy and then daily.
What type of medication decrease cardiac contractility and the workload of the heart, thus decreasing the need for oxygen? What are the interventions?Calcium channel blockers. Monitor liver enzyme levels. Monitor kidney function tests. peripheral edema
What type of medication decrease the workload of the heart and decrease oxygen demands? Decrease HR and BP. Interventions?Beta blockers. Instruct the client taking insulin to monitor the blood glucose level, take pulse and BP, change positions slowly to prevent orthostatic hypotension, avoid OTC medications, esp cold medications & nasal decongestants
Which medication can elevate liver enzyme levels, cause muscle cramps and fatigue, and you will need to Instruct the client to receive an annual eye examination because the medications can cause cataract formation?HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors -statins
What needs to be kept at the bedside of a pt with a tracheostomy?Keep a resuscitation (Ambu) bag, inner cannula, clamps, and a spare tracheostomy tube of the same size at the bedside.
What needs to be kept at the bedside of a pt with chest tubes?Keep a clamp (may be needed if the system needs to be changed) and a sterile occlusive dressing at the bedside at all times.
Situations that precipitate sickling include:fever, dehydration, and emotional or physical stress; any condition that increases the need for oxygen or alters the transport of oxygen can result in sickle cell crisis (acute exacerbation)
Which nervous system regulates the blood flow of the peripheral blood vessels?Sympathetic nervous system
Which anemia is a deficiency of circulating erythrocytes and all other formed elements of blood, resulting from the arrested development of cells within the bone marrow?Aplastic
What is the treatment for aplastic anemia?Blood transfusion, Immunosuppressives and splenectomy
What is the first sign of sickle cell anemia?Hand-foot syndrome
What is the intervention for sickle cell crisis?O2, rest, IV hydration, IV analgesic Morphine
What is thalassemia? How do you treat?Microcytic hypochromic. Bone marrow only makes small RBC. tx: blood transfusion and bone marrow transplant
What is the tx for Von Willebrand disease?Stop bleeding, prevent episodes, replace clotting factor VIII
Which lymphoma is a malignancy that originates in a single lymph nodes? Type of cells?Hodgkin’s disease. Reed-Sternberg cells- high cure rate
Which lymphoma originates outside of the lymph node?Non-hodgkins
How fast are platelets transfused?15-30 minutes
What are the symptoms for circulatory overload in a blood transfusion? Tx?Increased BP and HR, JVD, crackles. Slow the rate, raise HOB, and call MD
What are the symptoms for hemolytic reaction during a blood transfusion? Tx?Increase HR, NV, Decreased BP, back pain. Give benadryl.
What are the symptoms for allergic reaction during a blood transfusion? Tx?fever, itching, hives, anaphalactic shock. Benadryl, supportive care
What are the symptoms for febrile reaction during a blood transfusion? Tx?Fever. tylenol
What are the symptoms for bacterial reaction during a blood transfusion? Tx?Fevers, chills, increase HR and decreased BP. Obtain cultures, treat based on infection. Fluids, antibiotics, vasopressor
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