Final Science Test

disneykayla's version from 2015-12-05 16:53

Section 1

Question Answer
Struggles and Rate of Otter Rehab programHard if they're sick or hurt, most never return, 1 in 8 make it a year in the wild.
How is having otters in the same area a problem?Localized so an oil spill can kill a large group and then they won't expand and that makes them endangered.
Most interesting otter behavior?Carrying babies to safe spots and tying them to seawee.
How are otters susceptible to toxins?Parasitic infections from their prey which are filter feeders.
Why do we need to save otters?Keystone species so they affect everything like kelp forest. If they didnt' eat kelp we'd have underwater deserts.

Section 2

Question Answer
A sub discipline of biology about the interactions between organisms at varying levelsEcology
Difference of ecology vs. environmentalismEnvironmentalism is about concern from resources, pollution, and impacts
Group of individuals of same species living in the same area at the same timePopulation
What is apart of change in populationGrow, immigration, density, dispersal
How a population looksDensity
What kind of growth happens when there are ideal conditions and enough resourcesExponential/ J-shaped curve
Realistic population growth Logistic Growth, S shaped, you'll hit carrying capacity
What are 4 density dependent factorsReduction in food supply, diminished accessibility, Increase in parasites and disease, increase in predator risks
What are 3 density independent factorsWeather related, geologic processes, habitat destruction
Boom and Bust CyclesMore resources = more population, less resources = less population a cycle
What is the maximum sustainable yieldWhen a population is halfway to it's carrying capacity and grows the fastest
Big Bang ReproductionMatures, mates intensely and dies immediately after
Three patterns of dispersionClumped, uniform, and random
Clumped dispersionSchools of fish
Uniform dispersionPenguins, Seagulls
Random PatternsPlants and fungi
When is the only time the population decreased?Bubonic Plague
What do age pyramids tell usImpact on economics, employment, resource of use, quality of life, and stability of governments
What is the earth's carrying capacity?7-11 billion, we're already seeing shortages
Best ways of population control?Governmental, family planning, education of women

Section 3

Question Answer
All living organisms live in one locationCommunity
What are 2 disturbances that happen in a community?Trees falling and casting light and habitat loss
What is a SEK EcotoneForest and praries meet meaning both species are present
90% of these are gone and they're a keystone speciesPrarie Dogs
How do humans impact communitiesIntroduce nonnative species, few predators, global travel increase movement of species
How do species interact interspecific?Competition for resources, predation, symbiosis
ffunction that only a certain species can provideEcological Niche
What is the Competitive Exclusion Principle?Two species compete for resources and drives the other to extinction OR the species alter the niche and divide resources in Resource Partitioning.
What is predationHelps keep population level, helps maintain diversity and keystone species
What are 4 predator adaptations?Speed/agility, camouflage, tools/weapons, and intelligence
What are plant adaptations?Spines/Thorns, chemical warfare
What is symbiosis?Plant and animal associate for protection
Everyone wins; flowers and pollinators?Mutualism
One wins, one unaffected; egret on cattle?Commensalism
Winner and loser; tick on dogParasitism
Community of biological organisms, as well as the non-living components with which the organisms interact?Ecosystem
What are biomes?Ecosystems based on vegetation, depth, predictable landscapes, and climate
Along equator, high percip, poor soil, warm tempsTropical Rain Forest biome
Dry and hot, sparse life land, adaptations for retaining waterDesert
Great soil, extreme seasonal temp, fires and windTemperate grassland
Dominant trees, lose leaves in winter, broadleaf plantsTemperate deciduous forest
Northern latitudes, needled trees, cold/dry climatesConiferous Forest
Permafrost, bitterly cold temps, wind, fragileTundra
What are communities dependent on in aquatic systems?Depth, distance from shore
Photic ZonesWhere sunlight penetrates (most organisms live here)
Benthic ZonesBottom-dwellers (eat detritus)
Wetlands, shallow, filters, nutrientsFreshwater
Still water in basins, trapped pollution, natural and artificialLakes and Ponds
Moving water, cleanses pollution, plants and animals have to adapt to motionStreams and Rivers
Salt Marsh in Coastal AreasEstuaries
If there is green in the water what is it?Algae, NOT PLANTS
Three regions of oceanCoastal, Open ocean, Coral Reefs
What creates the seasons?The angle at which the sun hits the earth.
What 3 local features affect climate?Mountains, water bodies, and human engineering
What is the energy flow in an ecosystem?Sun to producers, to primary consumers to secondary consumers to tetriary consumers
What are Detritivores?Decomposers
How can humans help the energy pyramid?Eating more vegetarian
How to humans impact energy flow? (3)Added chemicals, bioaccumulation, biomagnification
Carbon CyclePlants use carbon through photosynthesis, organisms eat plants and put carbon back into air, carbon accumulates in ground to be burned
Nitrogen CycleNitrogen is fixed by bacteria, modified into a form that can be taken by plants, moves through food chain, animal waste breaks down back into atmosphere
Phosphorus CyclePlans absorb, move through food chain, returns to soil with dead animals, gradually released into soil
NPK LevelNitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
What happens when we continuously burn?We put more carbon into the atmosphere.
What is Eutrophication?Increase nutrients causes algae to bloom and reduce oxygen in water, causing animal die off.
What are dead zones?Caused by DDT in mississippi to Louisiana, causes animal die off.

Section 4

Question Answer
A variety of species, gene pools, and ecosystemBiodiversity
How many species are described and how many are at risk1.75 mil and 10,000
Where is the most biodiversity?Near the equator, rain forests, coral reefs, and islands
How are species valuable for ag?7000 species, 50% of global food demands in grass family
How are species valuable for medicine?25% of pharmaceuticals have plant origins, alternative medicines from animals
Commercial value?Logging, pet trade, ecotourism
Recreational value?Sport fishing, hiking, bird watching, symbols
Naturalistic value?Awe and fascination
Scientific value?Classification and life cycle investigation
What is the main human impact on diversity?Habitat change!!! Introduced species, overexploitation
What is the Greenhouse effect?Lets sunlight through but retains heat and adding CO2 increases the effect making it hotter
Problems with increased temperature?Sea level, floods, droughts, harmful insects, energy consumption, ocean currents
What is the Ozone Layer?It increases exposure of harmful rays causing more cancer
What is the interdisciplinary field that addresses how to preserve natural resources?Conservation Biology
How to conserve endangered species?Protect species, protect habitat, population recovery, control habitat, edges, zoned reserves, landscape ecology
What is sustainable development?Promoting good health of ecosystem, reversing disturbances and avoiding sensitive areas

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