Final ps 7

eshapeesha's version from 2016-06-01 03:22


Question Answer
rational choice theory based on decisions and choice, mixes levels of analysis, focus on heuristic games, actors survey their enviro and choose strategy that best meets their subjectively defined goals. success determined in terms of meeting goals, regardless of substance of goal
rational choice key pointsfocus on strategic interaction, actors purposive, universally applicable, pragmatic, same methodological bets
utilityutility (outcome)= probability(good outcome) + probability (bad outcome) if the utility turns out to be greater than the current, it's the more rational choice.
actors are rational when theyhave complete, ordered alternatives, show transitivity (if 10>5, 15>10, 15>5), must know goals and preferences, not bounded to comprehensive rationality
framing biaspeople tend to choose things when framed in terms of gaining positive,
prospect theorywhen faced w loss taking the risky choice is more likely.
what is the difference between rational choice and bounded rational choicebounded rational choice chooses the most satisfactory response while rational choice chooses the most optimal option
safegaurds to poli scientists making biased decisionsdecision makers should be aware that they are heavily influenced by theories they expect to be verified, see if attitudes contain links that arent logically related, make assumptions, beliefs, and predictions that follow aexplicit, prevent individuals and organizations from letting their themselves and their interpretations from being tied to theories and images of other actors, include several perspectives in opinion.
cuban missile crisis rundownmissiles discovered in cuva, pres asks group to consider responses and options, they discuss khrushchev's potential response to unannounced air strikes, then 6 days after all this started president announces cuba blockade, then recieves word that soviets will attempt to breach the blockade. then the president recieves two conflicting messages from khrushchev- missile removal for non invasion of cuba and removal of cuba missiles contingent on removal of tky
cuban missile crisis summaryAfter receiving intelligence that the Soviet Union was placing medium-range ballistic nuclear missiles in Cuba, on October 14, 1962, President Kennedy announced a naval quarantine of Cuba to block further Soviet missile deliveries, and demanded the removal or dismantling of the missiles already in Cuba. On October 28, Khrushchev agreed to stop work on the Cuban missile sites and to remove the missiles that were already in place. In return, the United States pledged not to follow through on its threat to invade Cuba.
what influences decision makingdifference in rules, causing people to make different decisions w different outcomes . rules impact how decisions are thought of and made
realist perspective of unopolarityus is the major super power in the 21st century, realists say this is short lives bc things balance and everyone fears subjugation so other countries will challenge the us.
why has the us been able to maintain its unipolar placehas a huge margin of error since soviety union collapse, hegemony depends on how us uses its power
whats the importance of allies to us int policywhen everyone is on board policy is watered down, and less specific. when you do things by yourself, people perceive you as a threat.
wohlforth and brooks opinion on future us policyplay up benefits of new reforms, provide public goods, link to current events, exploit opponents argument, show necessity of change.
public goodsomething a gov gives to all people, your use of it doesnt degrade anyoen elses.
problems in us foreign policyoverreach in other countries resulting in backlash (ex- 2nd iraq war)
when is war ok under international lawself defense, pre emptive war. for example the israeli 6 day war
how do you make change on an international scaleviolate the law. the usa doesn't care about the un so it doesnt follow the un, undermining its power
which countries should the us care most aboutthose in transition
pivotal stateshave potential for econ growth. their political stability or instability will have international consequences. inc mexico, brazil, india china, egypt, south africa
who are wolforth and brooksrealists who think domestic politics and leaders actually matter.
iraw war and the bush admin stepsself defense, transformative violation, fundamental challenge
as china's power growsso will its ambitions, so it will pursue more assertive foreign policy.
china's international relationschina is more cooperative in internationally lead security efforts, usually hesitant bc domestic challengers
what does china wantdisputed lands in east asia. the us doesnt want this area to become destabilized so its encouraging participation in global governance
globalicationincreasing harmonization of worldwide econ, communication, finance, and trade sectors.
lessons learned in chinadiplomacy matters, strategic interdependence for good and ill, cooperation consensus without overstepping
what do skeptics of globalization saytrade used to be a proportionally more significant aspect of the economy, increased trade has only been occurring in certain regions, trends change across time
believers of globalization povglobalization's impact is everywhere, focus on finance and economic exchange, centrality of states is less obvious bc rapid expansion of finance, markets are primary, money has become digital and large transfer of money can occur more quickly which has the capability to destabilize markets.
positive effects of globalizationlabor supply increased so supply can meet demand, demand of increased standards, expedient monetary transfers human rights networks and remittances and info markets are also bigger
negative effects of globalizationlocal job loss bc increased competition from abroad, countries that are labor abundant compete for who will get the most jobs through bad treatment of workers and higher productivity. the rich get richer and poor stay poor since the developing world is vulnerable to revert to tradition. Transnational crime, Diaspora-insurgency links
realists focus onsecurity and power of pivotal states. they want international institutions for greater power and security. failed states dont matter bc arent contributing to us power.
failed stateno functioning gov. us often goes into failed states to enstate democratically elected leaders.
what did bretton woods createimf and world bank
gatt changed tarifs from30% to less than 5%
world trade organizationdoha round which aims to lower trade barriers and revise trade rules, been going on since 2001
imfinternational monetary cooperation, solve balance and payment problems, provides loans (short and med term)
world bankprovides long term econ development, focusing on the elimination of poverty rather than finance, technical and monetary support, funding longer term
gatttrade agreement among states, globally reducing tariffs and taxes
wtophysical embodiment offset that tariffs should go down and trade be more free and liberal. this was spawned from gatt
ftafree trade agreements. when these are regional its delt with by nafta, maybe ttip, likely tpp. when these are regional they are delt w by colombia, panama, south korea
china and tppus thinks tpp will force china to liberalize, china has alternative regional fta called the rcep
katz opinion of china and japanthey are in a chicken game immutual aversion- mutual dependence on trade with eachother so they'll never go to war.
trade and interdependenceincrease in the absolute levels of trade do not necessarily mean increased interdependence. for countries that arent interdependent, war is less costly.
international war official definitionorganized armed forces, 1000 battlefield fatalities, effective resistance on all sides, must commit 1000 troops or suffer 100 battle related combat fatalities.
flaws in official definition of international wardoesnt account for civilian death which ignores violence
civil war historical povgaining political control of a state. it needs to be clear who is on whose side.
civil war poli sci povgov vs 1 domestic faction of the state who wants control of gov
social revolutionoverturning leadership and fundamental overturn of social structure
elite revolutionrich taking power from leaders (ex- coup)
traditional revolutionssocial, elite, coup
secessionismportion of country wants to separate for independence
types of civil warsocial revolution, elite revolution, coup, anti colonial war, secessionism, internationalized civil conflict (w spillover, intervention, proxy), state dissolution/ failure
what is internationalized civil conflictcombattants cross international boundaries and spill over, countries from far away put troops in war area, proxy conflict- 1 country helps another without troops, state dissolution- no gov to fight or control .
interstate wars cause more deaths?ya
civil wars usually lastlonger and kill fewer combattants
since 1945 international war has beengoing away
hamlton v burr duelhamilton dies, burr tried for murder and his political career was over.
why will war be obsoletelmtd scope, immoral, peace and trade interdependence make it less attractive (kantian tripod)
why will war not be obsoletehonor isnt equal to material gain, win territory and therefore resources and people for labor, countries who are opting out of war are concerned that they will be attacked, international violence has stayed constant, 1 international war p/ century statistically
state failurecollapse of order internally, sometimes in civil war
are state failures a security threatinability to control what goes in and out of borders and actions of nonstate actors. gov have no control.
solutions to help state failuressupport and engagement through money, ngos, create good gov and military which is the best option for the least broken states; shared sovereignty- someone else shares control over sector until the problem is remedied. this is best for states with leaders only.
neo trusteeshipbuddy system where strong member of international community oversees the organizations in a new country. but these dont always work bc colonial linkages are common so the strong country doesnt want to help it wants to take over
decertificationlet local governance become new countries and take out the central gov. advocated by hertz and done by somalia and only used for countries that are completely collapsed.
how is the burma gov keeping peaceethnic armies
why does it look like north korea isnt a failed statefewer people are leaving
fund for peace refers tostates that need support and engagement in their definition of failed state
system levelnetworks and their interactions
state levelfocus on country
individualpsych and phil and pol theory
paradigmschange ideas resulting in a change in conflict. inc theories like realism, liberalism, constructivism

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