Final polsci 6

eshapeesha's version from 2015-12-08 20:02


Question Answer
vertical accountability means through which citizens, mass media repsonsibility,
horizontal accountability capacity of state institutions to check abuses by other public agencies and branches of gov
executive powerchief political power, implements laws, exists in all modern states
legislative powerbranch of gov that makes the law in a democracy
judiciarybranch of gov that interpets th law and applies it to particular cases.
which countries have a presidential systemus, nigeria (4th republic), and brazil
majoritarian democracyhas greater vertical accountability, for example the uk. in the uk power is concentrated, single party executive, executive dominance over the legislature, 1 legislative branch, onstitution can be easily amended.
consensual democracyus has this, power is dispersed, multi party executive, exec power balances legislative power and visa versa, bicameral legislature, hard to amend the constitution
parliamentarismexecutive and legilsative branch are fused, voters choose party they prefer and the prime minister is chosen accordingly
presidential systemexecutive and legislative are separately elected
veto playersstrong and autonomous bureaucracy, strong federal system w powerful and partially autonomous subnational actors.
coalition partliamentary governmentwhen no party has a clear majority, largest party forms the government by negotiating for voting support w smaller parties, party trades policy concessions, gov jobs, and cabinet seats for legislative support. dependent on idealogical proximity and minimum winning coalition. 2 parties negotiate an agreement to rule together.
westminster modelone party wins majority of parliamentary seats, so the leader of the majority party who is also an elected member of parliament is chosen as the prime minister.
powers of prime ministercontrols the majority of the legislature, disciplines the party, can dissolve parliament.
checks against prime ministercabinet ministers can privately oppose, parliament can force resignation of pm by vote of no confidence or by voting against major policy. however, the entire cabinet must resign and a new gov must be formed.
how is head of gov chosen in parliamentary systemchosen from the members of the legislature
common law systemjudges take previous cases into accountability
power of brazils pres limited byhighly fragmented multiparty system
judicial reviewthe right of the judiciary to decide whether a specific law contradicts a country's constitution
symmetrical federal systemwhen territorial units have the same relationship to the national government
how is pm chosen in parliamentaryvoters vote for party and legislative branch chooses pm
how is cabinet chosen parliamentaryby the prime minister, they are members of parliament orig
minimum winning coalition“Contains the smallest number of parties which together can secure a parliamentary majority”
characteristics of presidential systemseparation of power, independent legislature, hard to change president, divided governents can happen
majoritarian democracyconcentrates power more tightly in a single party executive w executive dominance over the legilative branch and constitutions that can be easily amended
parliamentary system in israelseveral parties so a 1 party coalition is usually formed , a majority vote is rqd to elect pm and form gov, huge threat of instability
what kind of legislature in britainbicameral, w house of commons who have virtually all legislative power, and the house of lords which is the appointees of the prime minister and they got born into their positions
india's parliamentary systemcabinet constists of leaders within the majority party, mps focus on local issues,
brazil's presidential systemweak pol parties, decentralized federal system, pres can issue dd (30 day law), line item veto, monopoly over initiation oflegislation, coalition presidentialism- presidents put toether coalition govs for support,
collective action problemindividuals are unwilling to engage in particular activity bc of their rational belief that their individual actions have no effect, but then they suffer the consequences
single member districtelectoral system in which each geographical district elects a single rep to a legislature
plurality systemmost votes wins, aka first past the post
majoritarian systemwinner needs 51% votes to win
proportional representationelectoral system in which seats in a legislature are appointed on a purely proportional basis, giving each party the share of seats that matches its share of the total vote.
semipresidentialism2 executives, pres and pm. pres is elected directly.
semipresidentialism in francepresident names the prime minister and cabinet, presides over the cabinet, can dissolve national assembly and call new elections, line item veto, binding exec regulations, appts justices, can call national referendum
cohabitationpres and majority of members of parliament come from different political parties.
checks on presidential power franceblocked vote- pm refuses to recognize amendments from floor of legislature, cabinet members are presidential rivals.
france bureaucracystrong and independent
nationa assembly francelmtd ability to amend laws
court in brazilhigher courts improve in legitimacy and capacity, lower courts despised, 35% pretrial detainees,
asymmetrical systemdifferent subnational groups have distinct rights
majority systems result inlots of coalition
dominant party systemparty systems in which multiple parties exist but the same one wins every election and governs continuously
two party system2 parties are able to garner enough votes to win an election although more may compete
two and a half party system2 large parties win the most votes, but typically neither gains a majority, so a third party must join one of the major parties to form a legislative majority.
multiparty systemsparty systems in which more than 2 parties could potentially win a national election and govern
duvergers lawsingle member district, plurality rule elections favor 2 party systems. results in a multi party system. no majority in first election creates runoff w 2 parties w most votes, coalition gov created so majority parties can win reating a multi party system
duvergers hypothesissmd, runoff system
mechanical effectplurality rule is strongly biased against smaller parties, denying them any representation
exception to duvergerfederalism when parties can win a majority at a regional level, and run off system
proportional representationdistricts have mutiple seats available, number of seats p district or district magnitude effects degree of proportionality
closed list prvoters vote for party, favoring high party disclipline
open list prmultiple candidates run and people vote for candidates
result of proportional representationincreases the number of parties making for a divided party system
mixed systemproportionality in allocation of seats, though often w slight overrep of larger parties
ballots in mixed party system1 ballot for idealogical rep, 1 for geographical rep. ballot used to calculate total share ofl egislative seats, rep minorities, reduce fragmentation, fewer parties
french electoral systempr with a highly fragmented party system, collapses in large part to gov instability,
civil societysphere of organized citizen activity between the state and the individual family
interest group pluralisminterest group system in which many groups exist to represent particular interests and the governemnt remains officially neutral among them
neocorporatismcorporatism that evolves historically and voluntarily rather than being mandated by the state
peak associationsorganizations that bring together all interest groups in a particular sector to influence and negotiate agreements with the state
state corporatismcorporatism mandated by the state
social movementspart of civil society, represent people who percieve themselves to be outside formal institutions, seek major socioeconomic or political changes, or employ noninstitutional forms of collective action
patron client relationdirect provisions of material support to individual voters in exchange for their support
uk smd system2 party, smd system w pluralist interest groups, labor party upset bc they never get gov rep, instead of parties choosing mps it changes to direct election
open list proportional repvoters choose an individual candidate
types of SMDfptp (uk, us) and majority/ run off system ( france)
types of proportional repclosed list and open list
types of open list repmixed member majoritarian and mixed member proportional
pros and cons of smdstrong identification with rep, 2 parties easy to govern, rep has strong motivation to rep constitutents. cons- pork barrel politics, less rep of minority views, lower participation rate, lack of choice.
proportional rep pros and consideologically focused, participation rates increase, presentation of minority groups. cons- fragmentation causes instability, overrep of minority
shadow cabinetsenior group of opposition spokespeople who form an alternative cabinet to that of the government and whose members mark each individual member of the cabinet
concurrent electionselections where the first or only round of the presidential election and the election of the legislature are held on the same day. result in same party in leg and pres
problem and solution in brazil w open list systemproblem- rep only concerned about local issues causing fragmentation and weak parties so there was no coherent leg. then legislatures started voting as a bloc to avoid party switching, independent unions breaking monopoly of state corporatism imposed by military gov, participatory budgeting system- citizens meet to set priorities for annual gov buget, elect reps to produce budget proposals, free fare- campaigns for reduced public transit fares,
laasko and taagperasum of squared shares of all parties gives the effective number of parties
governing potentialwhen a party has a realistic chance of winning an election and/or participating in the coalition that elects the prime minister
blackmail potentialwhen a party's existence affects the tactics of party competition and particularly when it alters the direction of competition
downsmedian voter can be shown on a curve, so voters will choose the party they feel closest to. voters are normally distributed around the median, parties change positions to secure votes
personalist regimespower and legitimacy concentrated in supreme leader. most create a personal security force
ldictator's dilemmaruler's repression causes fear amongst the people which causes the ruler to be unsure of how much support they have amongst the people causing further repression
elections in semi auth regimesshow who is against the ruling party, provide guise of democracy,
coupchange of gov through force, military usually allows to happen occurs when there is a low state capacity and low value of democracy in comparison to stability
democracyhas free and fair elections that are competitive, regular, and for all effective positions of gov power, everyone can register to vote, freedom of speech, media, civil/pol liberties. 3 pillars- competition, participation, civil liberties
freedom house ratingsbased on political liberties and civil liberties. scored from 1-7 (7 least free), then avgd. 1-2.5= free, 3-5= part free, 5.5-7= not free
world trends in democracy scoresthere has been a decrease in scores within categories, free countries increasing overall
regional differences in democracy scores3 latin americas recieve highest score, europe and america have majority free, asia pacific- 40% free, af- 20% free, mid east/af- 11% free, eurasia- 0 free, 42% partly free
modernization theoryhigh levels of econ development lead to a stable democracy, measured by gdp
modernization packagehigh gdp p/ capita, industrial, education, urbanization, mass media tech, some or all favor democracy
when is gdp not a helpful indicatorwhen oil is involved
inequality and democracydemocracies carry a risk that the poor will vote to redist resources from the rich. where inequality is high the rich will fight democracy, democracy exists at moderate levels of inequality or when there is a large middle class
democratic political culturetolerance, compromise, literacy, social trust, efficacy
efficacypeople like me can change events, value of participation
religion and democracymuslim majority prone to authoritarianism, protestants are more likely to be democracy according to veber bc literate, protestant churches use democracy within congregations, capitalism.
ethnic diversity and democracycountries w low ethnic diversity are more likely to sustain democracy
when do coups occurwhen all efforts to keep the military loyal fail, military engages in coups to advance institutional interest including a larger budget or higher pay or better equipment, neopatrimonialism- particular military leaders want to gain power for their own interests
hardlinersleaders of authoritarian regimes who believe in repressing any opposition and preserving the status quo
softlinersleaders willing to consider compromise to democratize.
what marks the completion of democracyfounding election- first democratic election in many years, marks completion of democracy
democracy results fromactive pressure by a democratic opposition combined w a vulnerable and divided elite