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Final Exam

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mellowstar51's version from 2015-11-19 23:54

Section

Question Answer
Superiorabove
Inferiorbelow
Medialtowards the midline (of the body)
Lateralaway from the midline (of the body)
Proximal(of the limbs) closer to the trunk
Distal(of the limbs) further from the trunk
Anteriorfront of the body (in anatomical position)
Posteriorback of the body (in anatomical position)
Frontal (Coronal) planevertical plane that divides the body into ventral and dorsal (front and back) sections
Sagittalvertical plane that divides the body into right and left halves
Transverse (Horizontal, Axial, Transaxial)horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts, and is perpendicular to the frontal and sagittal planes
Flexiona bending movement decreases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint
Extensiona straightening movement that increases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint
Abductionthe movement of a limb away from the midline of the body
Adductionthe movement of a limb towards the midline of the body
Rotationthe movement in which something pivots or revolves around a single long axis
Circumductionthe circular movement of a body part, such that it combines flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction
Lateral flexionmovement around an anterior-posterior axis in a frontal plane
Lateral deviationmovement of the mandible as it shifts from side-to-side
Protractionforward movement
Retractionbackwards movement
Supinationrotation of the forearm and hand so that the palm faces forward or upward, and of the foot and leg in which the foot rolls outward with an elevated arch
Pronationrotation of the forearm and hand so that the palm faces backwards or downwards, and of the foot and leg in which the foot rolls inward with a depressed arch
Eversionmovement turning outward
Inversionmovement turning inward
Hingea joint such as the elbow in which a convex part of one bone fits into a concave part of another allowing motion in only one plane, and allows for flexion/extension
Ball and socketa joint such as the shoulder in which a ball moves within a socket so as to allow rotary motion in every direction
Glidingjoint such as between the vertebra in which bones meet at a flat or nearly flat articular surface and allows for sliding up/down, left/right, and diagonal movement
Modified hingea joint such as the knee in which a hinge joint allows for some rotation
Skeletal muscleattached to skeleton, striated and multinucleated, voluntary
Smooth muscleoccur in walls of internal organs and blood vessels, nonstriated and uninucleated, involuntary
Cardiac musclelocated within the walls of the heart, striated and uninucleated, involuntary
Extensibilitythe capability of stretching
Contractilitythe capability of shortening
Elasticitythe capability of returning to original shape or size after contraction
Excitabilitythe capability of being activated by and reacting to stimuli
Agonistcontracting muscle that creates movement
Prime movermuscle primarily responsible for generating a specific movement
Antagonistmuscle that opposes the action of the agonist
Synergistmuscle that acts with or enhances the agonist
Concentriccontractions which cause the muscle to shorten as it contracts
Eccentriccontractions which cause the muscle to lengthen as it contracts
Isotoniccontractions which cause the muscle to change length as it contracts and cause movement
Isometriccontractions that occur when there is no change in the length of the contracting muscle
Proprioceptionability to sense stimuli arising within the body regarding position, motion, and equilibrium
AROMActive Range of Motion, ROM peformed by client
PROMPassive Range of Motion, ROM performed by the therapist on the client
RROMResisted Range of Motion, ROM performed by the client with therapist resisting the motion
Lordosis/lordoticanterior curvature in the cervical and lumbar spines
Kyphosis/kyphoticposterior curvature in the thoracic and sacral spines
Scoliosispathological lateral curvature of the spine that is typically an inherited condition that becomes more noticeable during the adolescent growth spurt
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Section

Question Answer
Slow twitch (Type 1)aerobic (use oxygen to generate ATP fuel), continuous extended muscle contractions over a long time, fire slower than fast twitch and can work for longer before fatigue
Fast twitch (Type 2)anaerobic, short bursts of strength or speed, fatigue faster than slow twitch, provide similar force compared to slow muscles but fire more rapidly
Intermediate (Type 2a)aerobic and anaerobic, combination of Type I and Type II, can be made to specialize one way or another depending on workout method
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Section

Question Answer
ASISforward most bump on the iliac crest before it drops off
AIISbump above the glenohumeral joint after the iliac crest drops off
PSISback most bump on the iliac crest before it drops off
Iliac crestthe top ridge of the hip bone
Ischiumthe bones you sit on
Sacroiliac jointthe dimples on the lower back
C1off the mandibles
C7base of neck; most noticeable
T2superior angle of scapula
T7inferior angle of scapula
T12last rib
L4top of iliac crest
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Section

Question Answer
Tendons connect what to what and ligaments connect what to what?Tendons connect muscle to bone; Ligaments connect bone to bone
What is fascia and what is its purpose?Dense connective tissue that converse, protects, and binds structures of the body.
Define synovial jointMost mobile type of joint (Diarthrotic) characterized by having a joint capsule, large joint cavity, and synovial fluid
Define rectusstraight
Describe the different ways that muscles can be named1) Action they perform in anatomical position, 2) Shape of muscle, 3) Origin and insertion, 4) Location, 5) Relative size, 6) Direction of fibers, 7) Number of origins/heads
What factors affect muscle force production?1) Fiber type, 2) Number of muscle fibers, 3) Rate of stimulation, 4) Percentage of fiber recruitment, 5) Force-velocity relationship, 6) Fiber architecture, 7) Muscle temperature, 8) Elastic properties, 9) Angle of pull
What muscle length provides the greatest force?resting
What are the 3 principles of palpation?1) Move slowly, 2) Avoid using excessive pressure, 3) Focus your awareness on what you are feeling and be present
Largest organ of the bodyskin
What is palpated to feel for a pulse? Where are some common pulses located?arteries; Carotid (neck), Brachial (elbow), Radial (wrist), Femoral (thigh), Popliteal (posterior knee), Posterior tibial (medial malleolus), Dorsalis pedis (navicular), Temporal (temple), Apical (sternum)
Bones of the shoulder complexclavicle and scapula
Joint affected by a separated shoulder? Joint affected by a dislocated shoulder?Acromioclavicular joint; Glenohumeral joint
Four muscles of the rotator cuffSupraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis
Locations of rotator cuff muscles in relation to the scapulaSupraspinatus-superior to the scapula
Infraspinatus-posterior to the scapula
Teres minor-starts on the middle half of the lateral border of the scapula
Subscapularis - anterior to the scapula
What is contained in the intertubercular groove?Anterior humeral circumflex artery, long tendon of the Biceps brachii between the tendons of the Pectoralis major and Teres major.
What is the brachial plexus? What muscles can affect it? What is thoracic outlet syndrome?A network of nerves running from the spine formed by the anterior rami of the lower cervical nerves and first thoracic nerve (C5-C8, T1); The scalenes can affect the brachial plexus; Thoracic outlet syndrome is caused by compression of the neurovascular structures in the cervicoaxillary region.
Location and significance of ulnar and median nervesThe ulnar nerve (funny bone) is by the elbow. The median nerve passes through the carpal tunnel and contributes to carpal tunnel syndrome.
Location for flexor and extensor muscles of the forearmFlexors are anterior and medial, extensors are posterior and lateral
How do you determine if a muscle acts on the thumb or the big toe?pollicis and hallucis
How are fingers and toes numbered?Finters are labeled thumb-to-pinkie, toes are numbered big-to-little
Numbers of spinal cord branches31
Number of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae7, 12, 5
Numbers and differences between true, false, and floating ribsTrue - 1-7, articulate directly with the sternum
False - 8-10, articulate with the sternum via costocartilage
Floating - 11-12, no anterior connection with the sternum
Function of diaphragmExpands thoracic cavity during inhalation
Function of transvers abdominisCompresses and supports abdominal organs, Assists with exhalation
What are the 3 bones of the pelvic girdle?Ilium, Pubis, Ischium
Suboccipital musclesRectus capitis posterior major, Rectus capitis posterior minor, Oblique capitis superior, Oblique capitis inferior
Pelvic muscle that bridges the spine and hipPsoas
Muscle more closely associated with the sciatic nervePiriformis
Differences between the quadriceps and hamstringsQuadriceps are anterior and extend the knee, Hamstrings are posterior and flex the knee
Bones of the talocrural joint? Bones of the subtalar joint?Talocrural - tibia, fibula, talus; Subtalar - talus and calcaneus
Muscles that cross the knee and ankleGastrocnemius and Plantaris
Muscles of the triceps suraeGastrocnemius and Soleus (sometimes Plantaris)
Also known as the calf muscleGastrocnemius
Muscle commonly involved in shin splintsTibialis anterior
tendons of muscles that make up the Achilles tendonGastrocnemius, Plantaris, Soleus
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Section

Question Answer
Flexion of the shoulderDeltoid (anterior fibers), Pectoralis major (clavicular fibers), Coracobrachialis, Biceps brachii
Extension of the shoulderDeltoid (posterior fibers), Latissimus dorsi, Teres major, Pectoralis major (costal fibers)
Abduction of the shoulderDeltoid (All fibers), Supraspinatus, Pectoralis major (overhead)
Adduction of the shoulderPectoralis major, Latissimus dorsi, Teres major, Coracobrachialis, Biceps brachii (short head)
Prime movers of elbow flexionBrachialis
Pronation of the armBrachioradialis, Flexor carpi radialis, Pronator teres, Pronator quadratus
Supination of the armBiceps brachii, Supinator
Flexion of the trunkRectus abdominis, External oblique, Internal oblique
Elevation of the jawTemporalis, Masseter, Medial pterygoid
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Section

Question Answer
SternocleidomastoidExtends the head and upper cervicals (bilateral action); Flexes the neck (bilateral action); Laterally flexes the head and neck (unilateral action); Rotates the head and neck toward opposite side (unilateral action)
Rectus femorisFlexes the hip, Extends the knee
Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Vastus intermediusExtends the knee
Biceps femorisExtends and externally rotates the hip, Flexes the knee, Externally rotates the flexed knee
Semitendinosus, SemimembranosusExtends and internally rotates the hip, Flexes the knee, Internally rotates the flexed knee
GastrocnemiusPlantarflexes the ankle, Flexes the knee
Tibialis anteriorDorsiflexes the ankle, Inverts the foot
Gluteal musclesAbduction of the hip
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Section

Question Answer
SternocleidomastoidO- (Sternal head) superior manubrium, (Clavicular head) medial one-third; I- Mastoid process of the temporal bone
Rectus femorisO- Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS); I- Tibial tuberosity via the patellar tendon
Vastus medialisO- Intertrochanteric line and medial lip of linea aspera of the femur; I- Tibial tuberosity via the patellar tendon
Vastus lateralisO- Greater trochanter of the femur, gluteal tuberosity, and proximal, lateral lip of the linea aspera; I- Tibial tuberosity via the patellar tendon
Vastus intermediusO- Proximal two-thirds of anterior shaft of the femur; I- Tibial tuberosity via the patellar tendon
Biceps femorisO- (long head) ischial tuberosity, (short head) lateral lip of linea aspera; I- Head of the fibula
SemitendinosusO- Ischial tuberosity; I- Medial tibial shaft via the pes anserine tendon
SemimembranosusO- Ischial tuberosity; I- Posteromedial portion of medial tibial condyle
GastrocnemiusO- (Medial head) posterior surface of medial femoral condyle, (Lateral head) posterior surface of lateral femoral condyle; I- Posterior surface of the calcaneus via the Achilles tendon
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