Final Exam--Intro to Corrections

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Question Answer
A serious criminal offense, one punishable by death or by incarceration in a prison facilityFelony
What are the components of the criminal justice system?Police, Courts and Corrections
After a guilty verdict, this may be imposed right awaySentencing
Punishments from the Old TestamentAncient Isreal
First written laws of RomeTwelve Tables
Most common corporal punishment throughout the ages. Also called "whipping"Flogging
Practiced by Romans with a mark or letter which had significance to their crimeBranding
Considered most honorable form of capital punishmentDecapitation by sword
Replaced hanging for womenGarroting
Floating prison shipsHULKS
Word for workhouses developed in EnglandBridewell
Refers to the swiftness in which a criminal sanction is applied after a crime has been committedCelerity
A time that can be deducted for good behaviorGood Time
______ is the leading cause of deathSuicide
Majority of jail inmates are ______Male
There shall be no excessive bail for an offender8th Amendment
written obligation give to the court to guarantee appearance before the courtBail
Confinement that resembles to Military that includes physical regimen to help develop self disciplineBoot camp
First jail in the United StatesWalnut Street Jail
Normally used to confine the most dangerous criminals who need protectingMaximum/Close/High Security
_____of inmates will be released back into the community95%
Likes to give orders and enjoys the feeling of power, often disliked by inmatesThe Dictator
Use their power to bring commodities (contraband) into prisons for inmatesThe Merchant
Do the basic requirements to complete their daily work dayThe Turnkey
Generally ______ are a way of dominanceGangs
What are examples of Prison Code?Do your own time and no one else's, Don't be a "rat", Pay your debts
Norms and values among the inmates. Generally not approved by the prison staffPrison Code
Inmates can encounter _______ of imprisonmentPain
Fake family that acts like a real family with family like structuresPseudofamily
Considered to be the ones to "run" the prisonGangs
Considered the jailhouse lawyersThe legalist
What is solitary confinement based upon?Quaker principles
Considered a heavy threat to daily operations of prisons. Security Threat Group.Gangs
Location in prisons where inmates are locked up nearly the entire day (generally 23 hrs a day)Solitary Confinement
Supreme Law of Our Land. Most cases in regards to prisoners rights are claimed under violationU.S. Constitution
America's first private prison in the 1850'sSan Quentin
Act by a group of inmates which they forcibly try and gain control over a facility or a specific area within a facilityRiots
Area in prison where inmates are housed awaiting to be executed as they have been sentenced to deathDeath Row
Who was the first person to be executed? How? When? Where?Gary Gilmore. Firing Squad. January 17, 1977. Utah
Costs such as medical bills, loss of wages, etc. (losses are in result of victimization)Tangible Losses
Costs due to fear, pain, suffering, etc. (losses are in result of victimization)Intangible Losses
Repayment to the victim by the offender for losses, damages, or expenses due to the crime committed against the victimRestitution
The rights of victims to be represented equitably throughout the criminal justice sytemVictims Rights
A person who suffers physical, psychological, or financial harm due to the result of crime or attempted commission of a crimVictim
Offenses committed only by juveniles. i.e. curfew, violations, runawaysState Offenses
Penal institution to which youth or first time offenders are committed for training and reformationReform Schools
FBI. Only National Record. Started in the 1930's. Best official data.Uniform Crime Report
Born in London. Hedonitic Calculus. Author of Pain-Pleasure.Jeremy Bentham
Police force in London. Felt police should not have to punish. Goal ActSir Robert Peel
We punish and give sentences to protect ______Social Order
Behaviors are motivated by experiencing pleasure and avoiding painPain-Pleasure Principle
Payments made by the offender to victims and/or courtsRestitution
Serving sentences one after the otherConsecutive Sentences
Serving sentences togetherConcurrent Sentences
What are the 2 types of crime for main focus on Mandatory Minimum?Drugs and Guns
Foundation started to be laid. Release on recongnizanceBoston
Specialized court to handle the cases with drug addicted offendersDrug Court
Contract process that shifts public responsibility from the public sector to the private sectorPrivatization
Private forms have total responsibility for the jailPrivate Management
First system introduced the idea of solitary confinement in silencePennsylvania
Second system introduced with the idea of allowing inmates to work silently together during the day but at night they would be isolatedAuborn
8th Era. 1980-1995. Determinate Sentencing. Reagan declares War on Drugs. Mandated Sentences. Goal-Incapacitation.Warehousing Era
Release of a prisoner to the completion of the imposed sentence, but under the supervision of a parole officerParole
Officer in charge of overseeing the inmates with the prisonCorrectional Officer
Oversees and manages the function of the prisonThe Warden
Stay in the watch towers, wall posts, etc. Help prevent escapes and intrusionsPerimeter Security
Watch the inmates in the housing areasBlock Officers
Looks at prison being an opportunity for self advancementThe Opportunist
Live in the now. Look for the best jobs. Seeking pleasureThe Hedonist
Causes issues within the prisonsThe Aggitator
Just do their time. Try not to get in prison chaos.The Real Man
Unable to cope with prison stress/lifestyle. Resort to drugs/alcohol or maybe even suicideThe Retreatist
A civil wrong, wrongful act, or wrongful break of duty that exceeds the breach of contract which can be intentional or accidental and results want compensation or damagesTort
Imposition of the Death PenaltyCapital Punishment
Punishment due to a capital crimeDeath Penalty
Death sentence that legislation has required be imposed for certain imposesMandatory Death Penalty
What year did the court ruled capital punishment was not unconstitutional and did not violate one's 8th Amendment1977
Means parent country. Means the state has power to act as guardian for minors and those who are mentally incompetentParens Patriae
Offenses committed by a juvenile and if committed by an adult could result in criminal prosecutionDeliquant Offenses
English law allowing of offenders to newly discovered lands.Transportation
1550-1700. In between corporal punishment and modern prisons. Existed as humantarian, Move to try and improve conditionsWorkhouses
Want to _____ the offender to go back into society and be a "productive member"Reintegrate
What are the 2 goals of Mandatory Minimum?Deterance and Incapacitation
Washington and California. Main 2 states to implement this law.Three Strikes
Became first unofficial probation officerJohn Augustus
Treatment for offenders that is embraces by the help of the community. Emphasis toward rehabilitation through community programsCommunity Corrections
Believed he order the first jail to be built in 1166. Served to detain individuals prior to court, being tried and sentencedKing Henry II
Spirits needed to be broken before true reform can actually begin. Harsh discipline and "together" and silent labor aided in the above goalAuborn Supporters
3rd Era.1876-1890. First reformatory built in Elmira. Indeterminate sentences. First prison for women. Goal-RehabilitationReformatory Era
Process of dividing the inmates into different to match individual needs with the correctional resourcesClassification
Inmates thinking certain CO's have expert skills that are usefulExpert Power
Have general knowledge of all positions to help in relief when short in a certain areaRelief Officers
Control keys and weapons generally will operate the pod control roomsAdministrative Officers
Make prison their home. Know the ins and outs of Prison.The colonist
Full scale operation of the facility by the private sector. Most controversial. Population have increased dramatically.Private Management
When was lethal injection first used?1977 in Oklahoma
Prison conditions including health care must be below those of working class and people on welfarePrinciple of Least Eligibilty
Application of Social scientific techniques to study everyday corrections. Procedures for the purpose of increasing effectiveness and enhancing the efficient use of available resourcesEvidence Based Corrections
Courts imposition of a punishment on an individual convicted of a crimeSentencing
Passed first statute for probation and provided first paid probation officerMassachusetts
Locally operated correction facilities that confine offenders before or after convictionJails
Cells in a linear corridor (tri-pod). Only way to view inmates was to patrol the corridorsFirst Generation
First Era 1790-1825. Walnut Street Jail. 2 Competing Systems (Pennsylvania and Auborn)Penitentiary Era
First enacted in Massachusetts in 1837. Elmira Reformatory was the first correction institution to use parole.American Parole
Officer who is always looking at problems within policy or issues within the institutionThe Reform
Have previous records, but do not cause trouble for other inamtesThe Cool Inmate
Institutions that only house inmates locked up nearly the entire day, generally the worst of the worst offendersSupermax Prisons
What year did U.S. Supreme Court started looking into the constitutionally of certain aspects of capital punishments?1968
Private sector building designing, and financing the facility. Normally leased back to the jurisdiction through a lease/purchase contractPrivate Sector Development
What year executions were halted?1968
Factors that increase culpabilityAggravating Circumstances
Factors that reduce culpability (helps deter away from DP)Mitigated Cirumstances
Perspective that allows the judge and/or jury to consider victim statementsRestorative Justice
Inmates are house in small groups/pods. 24 hrs a day there is a staff member interacting with inmates. No secure norm for the supervising officerThird Generation
Pods surrounded a security network center for officer. Interaction with inmates was minimal as they spent more time in the control centerSecond Generation
An order to the person who is detaining a prison to direct them to bring the prisoner before a judge to determine whether o not they lawfully detained/imprisonedWrit of Habeas Corpus
High number of probation and parole individuals, the chance is high due to a parole or probation violationRecidivism
Retaliation towards the offenders. "Eye for an Eye". Debt towards the victim and society.Retribution
Imposing sentences required by statute for offenders convicted of certain crimes with particular circumstancesMandatory Minimum
Severity of the punishment should match the seriousness of the crimeProportionality
The act of reoffending and/or being rearrested. Belief probation works if we adhere to seven principles of rehabilitationRecidivism
Determine the inmates security levelExternal
Parole release is set by law and occurs in jurisdiction using determinate sentencingMandatory Parole
The process by which a court arrives at a decision in a aseadjudication
Offender being punished for community additional crimes. "Eye for an Eye". Thieves getting their hands cut offSpecific Detterence
Punishing offenders to deter others from committing like offensesGeneral Detterence
Keeping offenders isolated from society. Use of imprisonment to reduce the likelihood of the offender committing another crimeIncapacitation
Halting or suspension, before an offender is convicted in formal criminal proceeding. Normally with conditions of some form of counterperformanceDiversion
Easier to control prisoners. Prevented crime learningPennsylvania Supporters
Indicated the American courts were not to intervene in prison managementHands of Doctrine
Where a commission creates a set of guidelines to consider one's severity of the offense and a few characteristics of the offender (criminal record)Structured Sentencing
Competition to proved services such as medical services, educational/vocational services, food preparation, etcContracting Out
Decision made by general guidelines, rules, and lawsGuided Discretion
Approved automatic. Appellate review. State appellate courts. Compare the case with similar cases alone with a Bifurcated TrialGregg v. Georgia
Intake officer petitions the case to go to an adjudicating hearingFormal Disposition
Provisions under which the juvenile court orders the transfer of the case to adult courtsWaivers
Prosecutor decides whether or not try the juvenile court or adult courtDirect File Provisions
State Law gives adult courts jurisdiction over certain juvenile casesStatutory Exclusion Provisions
Normally just make them pay restitution or some form of informal probation. The case ends here.Informal Disposition