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Field Botany-Vascular Plant Vegetative Terms

amsykes's version from 2018-11-01 13:15

Section 1: Life Span and Plant Organs

Question Answer
A plant that completes its life cycle in one yearAnnual
A plant that completes its life cycle over a two year period Biennial
A plant that survives more than two years.Perennial
What are the three terms to describe the duration of a plants life span?Annual, Biennial, and Perennial
The part of the plant that attaches it to the ground or to a support, typically underground, that conveys water and nourishment to the rest of the plant via branches and fibers. Root
The main body or stalk of a plant or shrub that serves as a support structure.Stem
Blade-like expansions attached to a stem that serve as a principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. Leaves

Section 2: Plant Habit

Question Answer
A plant lacking a woody stem; many are flowering garden plants or herbs; some having medicinal properties while others are pests.Herb
What is of a plant or stem having a base that is somewhat woody and does not die down each year?Subfrutescent
A woody plant smaller than a tree and typically has several stems from the same baseShrub
A tall perennial woody plant having a main trunk and branches forming a distinct, elevated crown; includes gymnosperms and angiospermsTree
A plant with thickened juicy and fleshy bodies to aid in water retention in arid climatesSucculent
A plant with a weak stem that derives support from climbing, twining, or creeping along a surfaceVine
A woody climbing plant that hangs from treesLiana

Section 3: Root Types and Leaf Duration

Question Answer
A large central root that is thick and straight that grows directly downwards. Tap Root
Formed by thin moderately branching roots that are growing from the stem.Fiberous Root
Root growing on the stem, leaf, or bother body parts apart from the usual basal root system of the plantAdventitious Roots
High modified stem or root of a parasitic plant that penetrates the tissues of the host in order to absorb nutrients or waterHaustorial
Falling all at once as the leaves of a non-evergreen plantDeciduous
Remaining green throughout the year, even in the dormant season (if any); not losing all leaves at one timeEvergreen

Section 4: Stem Types

Question Answer
Prostrate to erect, above-ground stemAerial Stem
A horizontal underground stem that spreads and perennates a plant; usually bears adventitious rootsRhizome
A horizontal stem at or just above the surface of the ground that gives rise to a new plant at its tip or from auxiliary branchesStolon
A thickened short vertical stem axis with large, fleshy storage leaves attachedBulb
A solid erect enlarged underground stem with leaves absent or dry and scale likeCorm
A solid enlarged shortened horizontal stem usually broke below groundTuber

Section 5: Stem Features

Question Answer
The position of the stem where a leaf is or was attachedNode
The part of the stem axis between two successive nodesInternode
The upper angle formed by a leaf and the twig to which the leaf is attachedAxil
An external meristem found on stemsBud
A bud borne on the axil of the leaf (lateral bud)Axillary Bud
A bud that is borne at the end of a stemTerminal Bud

Section 6: Stem Features

Question Answer
Scale leaves that cover and protect terminal and axillary budsBud Scales
The rough places or scars leaf on a stem when bud scales fall offBud Scale Scars
A pair of rough places or scars left when stipules fall from a twig; they may be found on either side of the leaf attachment or leaf scar may be the only indication that stipules were presentStipule Scars
The rough scar left when leaf falls from a twigLeaf Scar
Specialized corky out growths from the bark of twigs that serve as passageways for gas exchangeLenticle
These tender parts develop into stems and leavesShoots

Section 7: Leaf Parts

Question Answer
The portion of a leaf that is thing and flattenedLeaf Blade
The stalk of the leafPetiole
A pair of appendages located at the base of the leafStipules
A cushion-like swelling at the base of the leaf or leafletPulvinus

Section 8: Leaf Complexity (Structure)

Question Answer
A leaf with a single bladeSimple leaf
A leaf with more than one blade per petiole or leaf baseCompound leaf
One of the segments of a compound leafLeaflet
The axis of a pinnately compound leaf; the continuation of the petiole above the attachment of the lowermost leaf Rachis
A compound leaf with leaflets attached like the vanes of a feather to an elongated rachisPinnately Compound
A compound leaf divided twice with leaves attached to secondary rachisesBipinnately Compound
The primary divisions of a pinnately compound leafPinna (Pinnae)
The stalk of a leafletPetiolule
A compound leaf with leaflets radiating from a common point of attachment like the fingers of a hand; no rachis presentPalmately Compound
Having three leaflets, lobes, or foilsTrifoliate

Section 9: Leaf Attachment

Question Answer
A leaf possessing a stalk or petiolePetiolate
A leaf blade attached to a twig and lacking a petioleSessile
A leaf with a very short petioleSubsessile
A sessile leaf with a stem passing through the bladePerfoliate
A sessile leaf with lobes of blade tissue projecting backwards on either side of the stemClasping
A leaf blade or petiole that is prolonged into a tube that partially or completely surround the twig above the note to which the leaf attachesSheathing

Section 10: Leaf Arrangement

Question Answer
A pattern of leaf distribution where leaves are attached to an underground stem or rhizomeBasal
A pattern of leaf distribution where leaves are attached to an above-ground stemCauline
Only one leaf is attached at each nodeAlternate
Two leaves attached at each node borne on opposite sides of the stemOpposite
Three or more leaves systematically distributed around the stem at the same nodeWhorled

Section 11: Leaf Venation

Question Answer
Pattern of veins in a leaf where there is a single large mid vein and secondary veins diverging from itPinnate Venation
Pattern of veins in a leaf in which three or more primary veins diverge from a common point at the base of a leafPalmate Venation
Pattern or veines ina leaf where several primary veins extend side by side throughout the full length of the leafParallel Venation

Section 12: Leaf Blade Shape

Question Answer
Leaves very long and narrow; relatively thickNeedle-like
Leaves in the shape of small flat or thickened triangles with little to no differentiation of a bladeScale-like
Long and narrow the sides parallel or nearly so; leaf blade more than 4x longer than broadLinear
Nearly rectangular; 2x-4x longer than broad with sides nearly or quite parallel most of their lengthOblong
Shaped like a spearheadLanceolet
Egg shaped; leaf blade less than 3x longer than is brand and widest near baseOvate
The inverse of ovate; widest near apexObovate
Shaped like an ellipse; widest near middle and tapering equally toward both endsElliptic
Circular and about as long as broadOrbicular
Kidney shaped; wider than broad and notched at the baseReniform

Section 13: Leaf Apices

Question Answer
Sharp-pointed with an angle of less than 90 degrees; often broadly used for any type of pointed leafAcute
Long, tapering to a point; often involves a change of angle margin with respect to midribAcuminate
Blunt with an angle of greater than 90 degrees; often have leaves that are rounded or truncateObtuse
Forming a continuous curve Rounded
Blade with a small abrupt point at apexMucronate
Having a notch at the apexEmarginate
Notched slightly at the apexRetuse

Section 14: Leaf Base

Question Answer
Sharp pointed with an angle of less than 90 degreesAcute
Blunt with an angle of greater than 90 degreesObtuse
Forming a smooth, continuous curveRounded
Appearing as if cut off at the base; nearly straight acrossTruncate
Shallowly notched at the baseCordate
Slanting unequally or unequally sides at the base; asymmetricalOblique
Blade with two basal lobes; lobes parallel or converging to petioleSaggiate
Umbrella likePeltate
Wedge shapedCunate

Section 15: Leaf Margins

Question Answer
Margin that is smooth; lacking teeth and lobesEntire
Margin with regular, rounded teethCrenate
Margin with very small rounded teethCrenulate
Saw-toothed margin with sharp teeth bent toward apex of leafSerrate
Diminutive of serrate; very small teethSerrulate
Margin with teeth of two sizesDoubly serrate
Wavy marginedUndulate

Section 16: Leaf Margins

Question Answer
Margin with teeth pointed perpendicular to marginDentate
Diminutive of dentate; teeth small and pointed perpendicular to marginDenticulate
Margin incised with very large lobesLobed
Lobes along the sides of an elongate leafPinnately lobed
Lobes radiation from the petiolePalmately lobed
The leaf that rolls upwardInvolute
A leaf with margins tolled or bent downward making the top convexRevolute

Section 17: Surface Features

Question Answer
A spirally coiled or claw-like structure by which a plant grasps an object and clings to itTendril
A woody, sharp-pointed, modified stemThorn
A woody, sharp-pointed , modified leaf or leaf-partSpine
Modification of a leaf into a spineFoliar Spine
Persistence of a petioles a spine after the leaf blade has fallenPetiolar Spine
Spines borne in pairs and lateral to leaf or leaf scarStipular Spine
A small, sharp, non-woody structure developed from outgrowth of the surface of the bark or epidermPrickle

Section 18: Indumentum

Question Answer
Surface smooth; lacking hairsGlaberous
Surface with short, straight, soft hairsPubescent
A surface with a way covering so thick it appears white or blueish in colorGlaucous
Short, stout hair; sandpapery to the touchScaberous
Pubescent with hairs that break down to sticky bead of fluidGlandular
Densely matted, wooly hairsTomentose

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