Family Trends, Diversity and Demographics

liv17's version from 2016-05-01 14:46

Section 1

Question Answer
DemographyThe term used for the study of the characteristics of human populations, such as their size and structure and how these change over time.
GlobalizationThe growing interconnectedness of societies across the world, with the spread of the same culture, consumer goods and economic interests across the globe.
Net MigrationThe difference between the numbers of immigrants and the numbers of emigrants. It is expressed as a net increase or a net decrease due to migration.
Total Fertility rate (TFR)The average number of children women will have during their child-bearing years (15-44).
Infant Mortality rateThe number of deaths of babies in their first year of life per 1000 live births per year.
ImmigrationEntering another country for a period of at least a year, so that the country of destination effectively becomes one of the usual residence.
EmigrationLeaving the country of usual residence for another country for a period of at least a year, so that the country of destination becomes the one of usual residence.
Dependency ratioThe relationship between the size of the working population and the non-working or dependent population.

Section 2

Question Answer
Death RateThe number of deaths per thousand of the population per year.
Life ExpectancyAn estimate of how long the average person can be expected to live.
Divorce rateThe divorce rate is the number of divorces that happen a year.
Natural population changethe difference between the number of births and the number of deaths in a population, resulting in either a natural increase or decrease.
Life Coursea sequence of socially defined events and roles that the individual enacts over time, such as births, marriage and death.
Life Cycle a series of stages, like childhood and middle age, that characterize the course of existence of an individual, group, or culture.
Individualisationthe individualisation thesis by Beck argues that as a result of the weakening of the influence of traditional structures and norms, individuals are now freer to make their own life choices. This is leading to more family diversity, risk and instability.

Section 3

Question Answer
Confluent lovefrom Giddens (1992). Unlike romantic love, confluent love is not necessarily monogamous, in the sense of sexual exclusiveness. What holds the pure relationship together is the acceptance on the part of each partner, ‘until further notice’, that each gains sufficient benefit from the relation to make its continuance worthwhile. Sexual exclusiveness here has a role in the relationship to the degree to which the partners mutually deem it desirable or essential’ 
Pure relationshipone which exists solely to meet each others needs. Couples stay together for love, happiness or sexual attraction, rather than because of tradition or duty, or for the sake of the children. According to Giddens, it is increasingly regarded as the only acceptable basis for a relationship.
Secularisationthe decline of religion; the process whereby religious beliefs, practices and institutions lose their importance or influence; e.g. fewer couples now marry in church and many people disregard religious teachings on issues like divorce, homosexuality etc.
Multiculturalisma society or institution that recognises and gives value to different cultures and/or ethnic groups: e.g. multi-cultural education teaches children about the cultures of other groups, not just the dominant or majority culture.
AssimilationAn approach to immigration policy that believes immigrants should adopt the language, values and customs of the ‘host community’ or country in which they settle.

Section 4

Question Answer
Legal changeLegal changes refer to changes in law and government policy also known as social policy. There are a number of significant legal changes which have occurred in the last forty years, which have affected the shape and nature of families and households.
Ideological changeAre political, culture or religious changes. There have been many changes in values toward households, families and marriage.
Social changeThe term social change is used to indicate the changes that take place in human interactions and interrelations.