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FA rapid review,DIT pharm,micro

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quickster2008's version from 2015-09-17 06:59

Section 1

Question Answer
Abdominal pain, diarrhea, leukocytosis, recent antibiotic useClostridium difficile infection
Anaphylaxis following blood transfusionIgA deficiency
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DICWaterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (meningococcemia)
Black eschar on face of patient with diabetic ketoacidosisMucor or Rhizopus fungal infection
ACE inhib
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Section 2

Question Answer
ACE inhibitor SErenal malformations
aminoglycosides SEototoxicity
fluoroquinolones SEcartilage damage
methotrexate SEneural tube defects, abortion
carbamazepine SEneural tube defects
valproic acid SEneural tube defects
diethylstilbestrolclear cell vaginal carcinoma
Drugs that inhibit COXaspirin, celecoxib, NSAIDS, acetaminophen
drugs that inhibit leukotrienesmontelukast, zafirlukast
inhibit phospholipase A2corticosteroids
inhibit lipoxygenase zileuton
what drugs act on microtubulesmebendozole/thiobendozol, vincristine/vinblastine, paclitaxel, griseofulvin, cholchicine
what rugs are known for inhibiting cytochrome P450?
What drug regenerates acetylcholinesterases after organophosphate poisoning?Pralidoxime
What is the antidote for organophosphate poisoning?atropine
Which anticholinesterase are used in the treatment of Alzheimers disease?Donepezil (AChE inhibitors)
most common cause of neural tube defectsfolate deficiency
most common cause of congenital malformationsalcohol use
Where can you find nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the body?Neuromuscular junction Autonomic ganglion
zepam,
azole
caine
cycline
navir
operidol
phylline
terol
triptyline
h a t cocktail of medications is commonly taken by patients suffering from severe cirrhosis?Lactulose (for encephalopathy) Vitamin K (for clotting) Diuretics (to prevent to prevent ascites & edema) Beta Blockers (to prevent bleeding of esophageal varices)
What categories of antihypertensives are considered first line in hypertensive patients with DM?ACEi's/ARBs
Which antihypertensives are safe to use in pregnancy?Hydralazine, Methyldopa, Labetalol, Nifedipine
Which antihypertensives are particularly beneficial to heart failure patients?Loop diuretics, ACEi's/ARBs, spironolactone, beta blockers
Which calcium channel blockers can be used to threat both hypertension and tachyarrhythmia?Diltazem, verapamil
What antihypertensives are safe to use in pregnancyHydralazine, Nifedipine, Labetalol, Nifedipine, Methyldopa
what pt groups must avoid fluoroquinoloneschildren and pregnant
Treatment for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus caused by lithium toxicity?HCTZ and amilioride
What is the initial treatment for ventricular tachycardia when there is no pulse?CPR + defibrillation
What are the treatments for overdose of heparin and warfarin? Heparin-protamine sulfate Warfarin-fresh frozen plasma, Vitamin K
What are the various clinical applications of atropine?1. Eye= to dilate and cycloplegia 2. Airway= decrease secretion (anesthesia) 3. Bladder= decrease bladder spasms 4. Organophosphate poisoning
What drug category is often used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis?Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
to which class of antiarrhythmics does each of the following agents belong? sotalol3
to which class of antiarrhythmics does each of the following agents belong? propranolol2
to which class of antiarrhythmics does each of the following agents belong? bretylium3
to which class of antiarrhythmics does each of the following agents belong? quinidine1
What medications are used to treat chronic heart failure?ACE I, ARBs, beta blockers, aldosterone antagonists, diuretics, digoxins, vasodilators
what medications are used to treat acute heart faliure?nitrates, O2, loop diuretics, ionotropes, positioning
what is the mechanism of action of cardiac glycosides (ex. digoxin)?inhibit the Na+/K+ ATPase = increase intracellular Calcium
what are the potential side effects of amiodarone use?pulmonary fibrosis, hyper/hypo thyroidism, hepatotoxicity, blue-grey skin discoloration, photodermatitis/photosensitivity
what is the mechanism of action of adenosine as an antiarrhythmic?increases the outward K+ current - hyperpolarization of cells decreases intracellular calcium
to which class of antiarrhythmics does each of the following agents belong? verapamil4
to which class of antiarrhythmics does each of the following agents belong? procainamide1
to which class of antiarrhythmics does each of the following agents belong? lidocaine1
to which class of antiarrhythmics does each of the following agents belong? diltiazem4
what is the mechanism of action of each class of antiarrhythmic?Class I - Na+ channel blocker Class II - beta blocker Class III - K+ channel blocker Class IV - Calcium channel blockers
what drugs are known to prolong the QT interval, increasing the likelihood of torsades in those at risk?sotalol, macrolides, chloroquine, haloperidol, risperidone, protease inhibitors (Navirs), class Ia and III
why is warfarin anticoagulation important in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation?in A. fib you dont get normal atrial contraction so the blood can pool in the atria and can cause thrombosis or clotting and pieces of that thrombose and embolize warfarin - reduce the risk of thromboembolism
what category of BP medications is preferred in the treatment of aortic dissection?beta blockers
what category of BP medications is preferred in the treatment of aortic dissection?beta blockers
which antihypertensive class or drug fits each of the following side effects? first dose orthostatic hypotensionalpha 1
which antihypertensive class or drug fits each of the following side effects? ototoxic (especially with aminoglycosides)loop
h i c h medication overdose can be treated with sodium bicarbonate?aspirin
Pulmonary arterial hypertension Sildenafil,
PDE-5 inhibitorsildenafil
breast cancer txAromatase inhibitor (anastrozole)
tx overdose amphetamines.ammonium chloride
SE of orlistatsteeatorrhea, decr absorption of fat soluble vitamins
tx to shrink prolactinomaDopamine agonists (e.g., bromocriptine)
inhibit prolactinDopamine agonists (e.g., bromocriptine)
make diagnosis of myasthenia gravis
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