FA Micro

emmurphy11's version from 2015-04-24 15:12


Which species?


Question Answer
diptheria toxinC. diphtheriae
exotoxin APsudomonas aeruginosa
Shiga toxinShigella
Shiga-like toxinenterohemorrhagic E Coli (EHEC)
Heat-labile toxinenterotoxigenic E Coli (ETEC)
Heat stable toxinenterotoxigenic E Coli (ETEC)
Edema toxinBacillus anthracis
Cholera toxinVibrio cholerae
Pertussis toxinBordetella pertussis
TetanospasminClostridium tetani
Botulinum toxinClostridium botulinum
Alpha toxinClostridium perfringens
Streptolysin OStrep pyogenes
TSST-1S. aureus
Exotoxin AS. pyogenes
exfoliative toxinS. aureus
enterotoxinS. aureus



Question Answer
inactivates EF-2diptheria toxin, exotoxin A
inactivate 60S ribosome by removing adenine from rRNAshiga toxin, shiga-like toxin
ADP-ribosylating A-B toxin (B binds host cell surface receptor = endocytosis, A attaches ADP-ribosyl to host cell proteins)diptheria toxin, exotoxin A, shiga toxin, shiga-like toxin, heat-labile toxin, heat-stable toxin, edema toxin, cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, tetanospasmin, botulinum toxin
Inhibit protein synthesisdiphtheria toxin, exotoxin A, shiga toxin, shiga-like toxin
Overactivate AC (increase cAMP)heat-labile toxin, pertussis toxin (via Gi disabling), cholera toxin (via Gs activating)
Overactivate GC (increase cGMP)heat-stable toxin
Mimic AC (increase cAMP)edema toxin
increase cAMP levelsheat-labile toxin, edema toxin, cholera toxin, pertussis toxin
Disable Gipertussis toxin
Permanently activate Gscholera toxin
SNARE protease in inhibitory neuronstetanospasmin
SNARE protease in cholinergic neuronsbotulinum toxin
phospholipase (degrades tissue, cell membranes)alpha toxin
cell membrane degradationalpha toxin, streptolysin O
binds MHC II and TCR = overwhelming cytokine release --> shockTSST1, exotoxin A
increase fluid secretionheat-labile toxin, heat-stable toxin, edema toxin, cholera toxin
Inhibit phagocytic abilitypertussis toxin
inhibit NT releasetetanospasmin, botulinum toxin
lyse cell membranealpha toxin, streptolysin O
superantigens (shock)TSST-1, exotoxin A, enterotoxin, exfoliative toxin



Question Answer
diphtheria toxinpharyngitis w/ pseudomembranes (throat) + bull neck
exotoxin Ahost cell death
shiga toxinGI mucosal damage (dysentery), HUS
shiga-like toxinHUS (O157:H7) (! no cell invasion, unlike shigella)
heat-labile toxinwatery diarrhea due to H2O efflux into gut
heat-stable toxinwatery diarrhea due to decreased H2O reabs in gut
edema toxinedematous borders of black eschar (cutaneous anthrax)
cholera toxinrice-water diarrhea
pertussis toxinwhooping cough (inspiration: "whoop" - expiration: cough) ! may not actually cause cough, but just increases persistence of sx
tetanospasminspasticity, risus sardonicus, lockjaw
botulinum toxinflaccid paralysis, floppy baby
alpha toxinmyonecrosis (gas gangrene) and hemolysis (double zone hemolysis on blood agar)
streptolysin ORBC lysing
TSST1toxic shock syndrome: fever, rash, shock
enterotoxinfood poisoning
exfoliative toxinscalded skin syndrome
exotoxin Atoxic shock syndrome

Other assoc. molecules


Question Answer
PyocyaninPseudomonas aeruginosa
AflatoxinAspergillus (increases risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)
PyoverdinPseudomonas aeruginosa
Mycolic acidNocardia, Mycobacteria spp.
LipooligosaccharideN. meningitidis (equivalent of LPS)

Virulence factors


Question Answer
Str. pneumocapsule
C. diphtheriaediphtheria toxin (AB exotoxin: encoded by beta-bacteriophage)
S. aureusprotein A (outer peptidoglycan layer); prevents opsonization
GASM protein (prevent phagocytosis)
TBcord factor
N. gonococcipilus
N. meningitidislipooligosaccharide (capsule)
H. influenzaeIgA protease
E. colifimbrae (cystitis, pyelonephritis), K capsule (pneumonia, neonatal meningitis), LPS (shock)
ShigellaShiga enterotoxin (invasion key to pathogenicity)
Salmonella typhi: Vi capsule in SCD osteomyelitis