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Eyes

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jmnies's version from 2017-02-14 04:24

Anatomy

Question Answer
Anterior cavity includesAnterior/posterior chamber
Anterior chamberFrom iris to cornea
Posterior chamberFrom lens to iris
Aqueous humorFluid of the anterior/posterior chamber, Absorbed into scleral venous sinus, Supplies nutrients to avascular cornea/iris, Ciliary process contributes to secretion
Bulbar conjunctivaPart of conjunctiva that is reflected onto sclera
Canal of SchlemmScleral venous sinus, At junction between cornea and iris, Drains aqueous humor
Ciliary body includesCiliary muscle and Ciliary process
Ciliary muscle muscle type and innervationMuscle is smooth, parasympathetic innervation (III)
Ciliary muscle contraction results inaccommodation for near vision, contraction relaxes and rounds lens (suspensory ligament)
Ciliary processAttach suspensory ligament of lens, Contribute to aqueous humor formation
CorneaRefraction, Continuous with sclera
IrisColored part of eye with central opening (pupil), Muscular control of pupil diameter
Iris sphincterparasympathetic, miosis
Dilatatorsympathetic, mydrasis
Lacrimal Gland location and motor innervationLateral, superior edge of eye, Secretomotor VII
Tear path after leaving lacrimal glandTears enter punta to be drained by canaliculi (inferior/superior) Tears then enter lacrimal sac From lacrimal sac drain via nasolacrimal duct into nasal cavity
LimbusJunction of cornea and sclera in the eye
Medial/lateral canthusEdges of the eye where upper/lower eyelids meet
Meibomian Gland (tarsal gland)Modified sebaceous glands on eyelid rim, Secrete oily substance that increases viscosity of tears, Blockage/inflammation is chalazion
Nasolacrimal ductDrains tears from lacrimal sac, Opens into inferior nasal concha
Palpebral conjunctivaMembrane on posterior surface of each eyelid, Conjunctiva reflects on outer surface of eye as bulbar conjunctiva
FoveaSurrounded by macula, Thinnest area of retina, Predominantly cones/high visual sensitivity
Optic disc and cupWhere optic nerve leaves retina, Central retinal artery enters eye, Blind spot
RetinaOptic layer, Pigmented and neural layer, Posterior/lateral, Neural detaches (retinal detachment)
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Terms

Question Answer
Near reaction from far to near, nerve responsibleIII
accommodationan increased convexity of the lenses caused by contraction of the ciliary muscles
AniscoriaDifference in pupil diameter, Considered normal if it is equal in bright/dim not and brisk pupillary constriction to light
Direct/Consensual reaction tests what nerveIII/II
Convergence of the eyes tests what muscle and nervemedial rectus and III
In lid lag of what disease, rim of sclera is visible above iris with downward gazehyperthyroidism
cover-uncover testtesting for strabismus, cover dominant eye, see if weak eye fixes on target
BankingThe vein is twisted on the distal side of the artery and forms a dark, wide knuckle.
TaperingThe vein appears to taper down on either side of the artery.
Concealment or AV nickingThe vein appears to stop abruptly on either side of the artery
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Pupillary Abnormalities

Question Answer
Tonic Pupil (Adie’s Pupil)Pupil is large, regular, and usually unilateral. Reaction to light is severely reduced and slowed, or even absent. Near reaction, although very slow, is present. Slow accommodation causes blurred vision. Deep tendon reflexes are often decreased
Oculomotor Nerve (CN III) ParalysisThe dilated pupil is fixed to light and near effort. Ptosis of the upper eyelid and lateral deviation of the eye are almost always present.
Horner’s SyndromeThe affected pupil, though small, reacts briskly to light and near effort. Ptosis of the eyelid is present, perhaps with loss of sweating on the forehead. In congenital Horner’s syndrome, the involved iris is lighter in color than its fellow (heterochromia)
Small, Irregular PupilsSmall, irregular pupils that accommodate but do not react to light indicate Argyll Robertson pupils. Seen in central nervous system syphilis.
Testing the near reaction is helpful in diagnosingArgyll Robertson and tonic (Adie’s) pupils
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Optic lesions

Question Answer
Horizontal DefectOcclusion of a branch of the central retinal artery may cause a horizontal (altitudinal) defect. Ischemia of the optic nerve can produce a similar defect.
Blind Right EyeA lesion of the optic nerve and, of course, of the eye itself, produces unilateral blindness
Bitemporal Hemianopsia (optic chiasm)A lesion at the optic chiasm, may involve only fibers crossing over to the opposite side. Since these fibers originate in the nasal half of each retina, visual loss involves the temporal half of each field.
Left Homonymous Hemianopsia (right optic tract)A lesion of the optic tract, interrupts fibers originating on the same side of both eyes. Visual loss in the eyes is, therefore, similar (homonymous) and involves half of each field (hemianopsia).
Homonymous Left SuperiorQuadrantic Defect (right optic radiation, partial) A partial lesion of the optic radiation in the temporal lobe, may involve only a portion of the nerve fibers, producing, for example, a homonymous quadrantic defect.
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Lumps around eye

Question Answer
EpiscleritisA localized ocular inflammation of the episcleral vessels. Vessels appear movable over the scleral surface. May be nodular or show only redness and dilated vessels. Seen in rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, and herpes zoster.
XanthelasmaSlightly raised, yellowish, well-circumscribed plaques that appear along the nasal portions of one or both eyelids. May accompany lipid disorders.
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Opacities of the Cornea and Lens

Question Answer
A golden to red brown ring, sometimes shading to green or blue, from copper deposition in the periphery of the cornea found in Wilson’s diseaseKayser-Fleischer Ring
Corneal ScarA superficial grayish white opacity in the cornea, secondary to an old injury or to inflammation
PterygiumA triangular thickening of the bulbar conjunctiva that grows slowly across the outer surface of the cornea, usually from the nasal side
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