Exotics - Small Mammal - Review 2

drraythe's version from 2016-02-10 20:55


Question Answer
Who gets hypercholesterolemia?Gpigs (pigs have high
If you are Tx a gpig w/ antimicrobials, what should you provide?Lactobacillus supplement
Foot stomping is a normal thing to do when excited?Gerbil
Who is ONLY herbivorous? (3)Gpig
The predominant circulating leukocyte in healthy guinea pigs is the___?Lymphocyte
Who forms their food preferences by 6mo of age & then wont want to try new things?Gpigs (picky pigs, just like rollie)
How much BV can be collected on a gpig?7-10% of BV can be collected (so roughly 1.5ml he said)
Fertile post-partum estrus in who?Gerbil, gpig, sugar gliders (GGS-Good to Go for Seconds)
Who has Foa-Kurloff cells? What are these? Look like?Gpigs-Leukocyte unique to the Guinea Pig & Capybara. Its a mononuclear cell the size of a large lymphocyte, w/ a VERY LARGE, SLIGHTLY GRANULAR, MAGENTA cytoplasmic inclusion body. They are highest in females during preg, it may create a physiological barrier btwn fetus & dam (a FOA BOA made of pigskin)
Which is the 1 you can do closed OR open castration on, even tho everyone has open inguinal rings?Gpig (altho their inguinal ring is open, they have a large epididymal fat pad in the vaginal tunic so theyre less likely to herniate)
Find copulatory plug if successful copulation?Gpigs
*****Whats super important to know about the timing of breeding your female gpig?THEIR PELVIC SYMPHISIS CLOSES AT 6 MONTHS! If you don't breed them before then (notes say prior to 7-8mo) then you will need a C-section to get babies out from a conception after this time window
Who much you breed before 6mo of age?Gpigs
**which mite affects gpigs? CSs, important things to know? Tx?Trixacarus caviae is a ZOONOTIC!!!! Mite which czs intense pruritus, excoriation of back & shoulders, alopecia. It will be so pruritic it will look like it is having seizures. Recc Tx is a LIME SULFUR DIP bc some are resistant to Ivermectin.
Ddx for seizures in a gpig?Trixacarus caviae is a ZOONOTIC!!!! Mite, which czs pruritus so bad it looks like seizures
*Cervical Lymphadenitis → in who, czd by what?GPIG (the other C & L 1 is hams, so this 1 is pigs) usually there is some sort of trauma to the oral mucosa (rough forage, malocclusion), or stress. At this point Streptococcus zooepidemicus (or S. moniliformis but this was less emphasized) sets in & soon there are Pus filled ventral cervical masses. Septicemia & bronchopneumonia are possible.
What are safe choices of ABx for gpigs?Sulfas, Fluoroquinolones, Chloramphenicol (DONT give flor instead of chlor), aminoglycosides (cefazolin parenterally)
Where DONT you draw blood in a gpig?NOT THE JUG-have no neck
What’s the predominant part of a gpigs GI (whats their setup) & what's their natural flora?Colon is 60% of the GI & they are coprophagic, main flora is lactobacillus-meaning they are basically tiny hind-gut fermenting horses
Pregnancy Toxemia, happens in who what are the CS?Gpigs, occurs in Primiparous (1st time pregnant), obese sows, during the final 2 weeks of pregnancy-obesity & fasting are the predisposing factors. There will be abrupt onset anorexia, quit drinking, 24 hours prostrate & dyspneic, there will be severe hypoglycemia, an enlarged fatty liver & empty stomach & DIC. Tx is usually unrewarding-PREVENTION IS KEY! good quality diet to prevent obesity & avoid stresses in late pregnancy (so, your chin gets a clot on it, but DIRTY PIGS get TOXIC problems to more than just a chin)
Basically the ABx you shouldnt give hind-gut fermenters & why?G+ flora
Lincomycin all bad
Killing off their flora will lead to overtake w/ Clostridium difficile
For who do you want a LARGE cage door?Hamsters (to remove them safely)
**What are the CS of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus? How do you dx & what must you do if the ___(WHICH ANIMAL?) is positive upon necropsy?Hamsters! A YOUNG hamster which has chronic wasting, subclinical infxn & MULTIORGAN inflammation. DX is PCR on necropsy & you MUST THROW AWAY THE ENCLOSURE-ZOONOTIC
How much volume is a SAFE blood draw for a hamster?5.5 ml/kg
Which rodents gets Tyzzer's dz? Who is more susceptible?Rats/mice
Gerbils are more susceptible
Tyzzer’s dz is czd by what agent? When do hamsters usually get this dz?Czd by Clostridium pilliforme (in a tizzy, take a pill. remember Clostridium looks like a tennis racket). Happens in immunocompromised hams
Limiting ridge at junction of eso & stomach in...?Hamsters
If they get it, CSs are:
Tachypnea or Dyspnea
Purulent rhinitis
Sticky eyelids
It is a POOR prognosis
Explain how hamster polyoma virus affects adults & young hams differently(1) ADULT: Usually get Trichoepithelioma (hair follicle base tumor)
(2) YOUNG: Usually get Multicentric lymphoma
Who has a smooth cerebrum?Hamsters
Who’s prone to hyperadrenocortisism?Hams (hamsters are hyper...bc theyre tiny spastic rodents)
Who will have a lowered PCV if you castrate them?Hams
Which rodent has a squamous forestomach where some fermentation can take place? (The little cows)hams
Melanoma is the most common skin tumor of?Hams (green eggs & black ham)
What is the safe amount for a blood draw for a hamster?0.5 ml is a safe amount to draw
Hymenolepis nana is aka? What’s important to know about it? What are the CS?Aka dwarf tapeworm. IT IS ZOONOTIC!! CSs can range from benign, to intestinal obstruction & death if there is a heavy load. (Direct or indirect lifestyle, CAN AUTOINFECT HUMANS)
Tyzzer's dz CS?Generally ill-poor hair coat
Death w/o signs
On necropsy you will see necrotic hepatic foci, w/ maybe intestinal lesions
(TX: Supportive care & ABx) - Gerbil’s main sign is just dropping dead
Who is more susceptible to dysbiosis-hams or gerbils?Hams (bc of their proventriculus & such)
Who’s prone to dental caries (cavities)?Hams
Avoid feeding seeds to...hamsters (will cz osteoporosis (seeds high in P & low in Ca) )
Proliferative Ileitis aka WET TAIL is czd by what in who? What body system is affected? What should you know about this agent?HAMSTERS (its funny bc they barely have a tail) Lawsonia intracellularis, causing DIARRHEA (GI) in any age ham. *there is POTENTIAL SPREAD to other species
**Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus → what kinda virus czs this? Who, which age does it affect? What’s important to know about this?ARENAvirus (throw out the hamster arena i.e. cage) which czs a rare dz of the YOUNG hamster. IT IS ZOONOTIC & THROW OUT THE CAGE
What should you know about hamster repro? (1 big thing)TAKE OUT THE MALE. She will eat him & the babies otherwise
What’s really important to know about hamsters before you start doing a necropsy?THEY HIBERNATE. They will look dead. Were they out in the cold garage? Make sure you check this. (I dont think we need to know, but the WBCs ↓ during hibernation)
When does a hams risk of neoplasia ↑? What are the 4 most common neoplasms (based on location in body), in order from most to least?>2yrs, over 50% incidence of tumors. Most common in order are: endocrine>lymphoreticular>dermatologic>GI (ELDG the eldger ham gets cancer)
DONT give these ABx to hamsPenicillin
Oral Gentamicin
Tx is like for the gerbil-supportive care & appropriate broad-spectrum ABx
What can you give that will bind the toxins in enterotoxemia?Cholestyramine
Tail slip is who?Gerbils
Who has a PERSISTANT thymus that doesnt involute?Gerbil
Who gets facial eczema & how can you help prevent/treat it?Gerbils get this. PREVENTION: sand bath, appropriate humidity (not too low!), avoid volatile wood shavings. TREAT: cleans face & give topical and/or systemic ABx for 2° infxn
Who has SUPER enlarged adrenal glands & why?GERBILS-bc they live in a super arid enviro, make lots of aldosterone to conserve salt & water
A client brings in a gerbil & says it's been having seizures-what should you know?Gerbils have an INHERITED, GENETIC problem where they have a Deficiency in glutamine synthetase. Bc of this, they will start to have Spontaneous seizures which start at 2mo & RESOLVE AT 6mo!! Usually Sudden stress, handling, new environment precipitate this problem, but early handling can help mitigate. No Tx recc & no last effect of seizure-they'll just go away after 6mo
4 ABx good for gerbilsSulfa drugs
(FAMS love gerbils, theyre so easy!)
Who has a midventral marking gland? (Gender diff? purpose?)Gerbils have one-It has hormonal control & is responsive to testosterone, which means its twice as large in males.
What are 3 contraindicated drugs in the gerbil??Streptomycin
Procaine (Direct toxicity neuromuscular blockade)
(Stone Dimple Pilots is a gerbil band)
If youre going to inject intraperitoneally into the gerbil, what must you do?***INJECT IN THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE GERBIL TO AVOID THE CECUM, LIVER & SPLEEN
How much can you draw from a gerbil?0.8 ml safely (gerbils can jump & do figure 8s)
Which sp has gender blood differences & what are the differences?Gerbils!
MALES = HIGHER. MCV is higher, Hb & Hct is higher. MCHC is higher. The total amount of leukocytes is higher, as well as lymphocytes
Their lymphocyte to heterophil ratio is higher also-6.1:1 in males & 3.2:1 in females ← almost double
Who has an avascular retina & why?Sugar gliders, bc they need superb night vision (avascular bc of large tepetum lucidum)
Which 2 go into a hibernation/torpor type state?Hibernation = Hamster
Torpor = Sugar glider
If you have a SG in torpor, what can you do? What must you remember to do?If you put them in an incubator it will help raise their temperature up & they will come out of it. HOWEVER, remember to have food available for them bc the problem was not enough food in the 1st place!!! There is a "glider booster" supplement you can get which has vitamins & minerals & glucose for them which you can give
Who has their beans above the frank?Sugar gliders-bc they kinda have a cloaca so it's farther back by the ass, which means the testes are above the penis
Which animal will mutilate if left alone & how might their mutilation present?SUGAR GLIDERS! Will mutilate their tail, penis, limbs, scrotum, cannibalism of young, as well as aberrant b/h-polyphagia, polydipsia, coprophagy, pacing
What are some things you should keep in mind when performing an OHE (ovariohysterectomy) in SGs? (2)(1) The SG has 2 VAGINAS & 2 UTERI. You must remove both if you want to spay
(2) The URETERS empty into the vaginas, so they sort of have a weird cloaca thing going on. DO NOT ACCIDENTALLY LIGATE THESE URETERS when doing a spay
How would you describe the GI of a SG?They eat a lot of Eucalyptus gum, so they have a short/simple GI w/ large cecum (kinda like hind-gut fermenters)
What is happening w/ wobbly hedgehog syndrome?This is a genetic disorder which czs progressive paralysis. It is similar to MS in humans. No Tx.
What are the 3 very well developed muscles which act as a shield (w/ spines in it) that let hedgehogs pull themselves into a ball?Frontodorsalis
Panniculus carnosis orbicularis
Who needs a smooth-sided cage?Hedgies - They'll keep running into corners
Neoplasia → hedges are little cancer magnets. What 3 cancers are they pretty prone to?SCC
Mast Cell
Integument dz → what might cz quill loss in a hedge?MITES!! (Chorioptic, Sarcoptic, Caparinia tripilis)
You see a hedge produce frothy saliva, which they then lap onto their spines of the back/flank. Are you worried?No this is anting/self-anointing & it's normal. The toxins (if they ingested a toxic plant to make the saliva) might damage a potential attacker
Who has acidic urine?Hedgehogs (rub acid in your spine-wounds)
What 2 horrible zoonotic dzs are prairie dogs known for carrying?Monkey pox & Yersinia pestis (the plague)
Monkey pox & Yersinia pestis are carried by who?Pdogs
What are the 2 major czs of dyspnea in pdogs?(1) Obesity
(2) ODONTOMA → this is a neoplasia of upper incisors tooth root. Possible dietary management related. Since they are obligate nasal breathers & this extends into their nasal cavities, the only way to help them breathe is to Create new nasal stoma to manage the dz (basically bore a hole in their sinuses)
Who gets odontomas & why is this use a problem?Pdogs, obligate nose breathers & the tooth root tumor is invading the nasal spaces
How can monkey pox be spread?Contact or respiratory droplets
Trigonal anal sac ducts?Pdogs
LIFESPAN Rats/mice1-3 yr
LIFESPAN Gerbils3-4 yr (2-3 avg)
LIFESPAN G pigs5-6 yr
LIFESPAN ChinchillasAvg. 10 years (can live well into teens)
LIFESPAN Hamsters2 years
LIFESPAN Sugar glidersMale 4yr female 5yr (CAPTIVITY 15yr)
LIFESPAN Hedgehog5-8 yr
LIFESPAN Prairie dog10 yr