Exotics - Small Mammal - Review 1

drraythe's version from 2016-02-10 01:41

The chance of a TQ is high w/ this one, young padawan

Question Answer
Which 2 can get hepatic lipidosis?Hedgehogs & prairie dogs (lol it rhymes) (fat hogs n dogs)
What is the main problem causing dz & illness & exotic animals?Husbandry
Which animal has 2 uteri & 2 vaginas?SG
Sugar Glider comes in w/ paresis of rear limbs, incoordination, diarrhea & blindness. What would you suspect?Nutritional Fibrous Osteodystrophy **#1 thing you see in sugar gliders
What animal carries Monkey Pox & the Plague!?Prairie dogs → & BOTH are zoonotic!
When are guinea pigs most active? What is this called?DAWN & DUSK → crepuscular (I eat a snickers at dawn & dusk)
What vitamin do Guinea Pigs need to have (from external source)?Ascorbic Acid-Vitamin C
What % of the Guinea pigs intestine is colon!?60%!!! (Small horse!!) (So, horsemeat & gpig meat)
If Guinea pigs are able to utilize coprophagy as they should... what is the GI transit time?66hrs!
What is the post-partum estrus in a Guinea Pig? (Time)2-10hr
Your owner comes in & wants to breed their Guinea pigs. Her female Guinea pig is 4 months old. What do you recommend?Breed them quick!! The Pelvic Symphysis will close at 6 months!
What can you determine w/ an ↑ ALT in Guinea pigs?Not much - NOT a sensitive or specific marker for Hepatocyte injury
Which animal is ALT levels basically useless in?Gpigs (gpigs are an ALT food source)
Hypercholesterolemia is common in who?Gpigs (If youre a pig you'll get high cholesterol)
What pirate dz do Guinea Pigs get related to Hypovitaminosis C?Scurvy
Guinea pig comes in & is tearing itself to pieces! It’s SOOO itchy!! What Ectoparasite would you check for?Trixacarus caviae is a ZOONOTIC!!!! Mite which czs intense pruritus, excoriation of back & shoulders, alopecia. It will be so pruritic it will look like it is having seizures. Recc Tx is a LIME SULFUR DIP bc some are resistant to Ivermectin. (The pig isnt doing trix, it's nearly seizing from the itch!)
Avg lifespan of a hamster?2yr
What is the most common cz of death in the aged hamster?Amyloidosis
If a ham has Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus (Arenavirus) what should you totally tell the owners to do?THROW AWAY ENCLOSURE! ZOONOTIC!!
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus in who & what should you know?Hams, ZOONOTIC
The 2-4wk old hamsters have dome shaped crania, potbelly, testicular atrophy, incisor discoloration & malformation. What do you suspect?Hamster parvovirus (Parvo dome)
In who are ovarian tumors benign? In who are they malig?Benign: hamsters. Malig: gerbils (you'd hope the 1 w/ M in the name is the 1 thats malig, but it's the opposite of course)
If your client wants to breed hamsters... what should she know about the males?REMOVE THEM or the female will eat him & her young. (The ham will have ham for dinner)
Which sm mammal is really sensitive to high temps?Chinchillas! Even tho theyre desert. Think about that coat, yo
Which animal has the “Harderian Gland”?Ratties & Mousies (they are stigmatized the most so they cry tears of blood! or at least that's what it looks like)
Where’s the Harderian gland, in who, what does it secrete?Behind eye in rats/mice, produces porphyrin & lipid rich secretion (looks like red tears/nasal discharge)
If you see a SQ mass on Rat / Mouse what type of tumor is it, until proven otherwise?MAMMARY GLAND TUMOR mouse & rat mammary
What is the most common cz of resp dz. in mice & rats? What’s on the Ddx tho?MYCOPLASMA (mouse watching a plasma screen will get outta breath)
DDX: SENDAI VIRUS (sendai my senpai has a cough)


Question Answer
Why are rodents prone to heat stress?Cant sweat, cant pant
Which rodents have ALL teeth grow continuously?Chinchillas, gpigs (the pig had its teeth all over it’s chin)
Who has longer lower incisors than upper incisors & what should you know?Rat/mouse-DONT clip them just bc theyre longer! (Also they are behind the maxillaries) (Charles had weird incisors)
Chronic Progressive Nephropathy in who & what Tx/helps?Rats, restrict calorie & protein intake (progressive & fatal-males over 1 yr. PU/PD, proteinuria, Hydrothorax & ascites in advanced stages) (rat kidney pie is no good)
What is the Whitten effect?Female mice housed in large groups may not cycle (Whitteny's mice are all jealous prudes)
Whos the only 1 you can pre-anesthetically fast?G-pigs-The fasting ↓ mechanical compression of lungs & diaphragm & ↓ chances of vomiting. (Theyre pigs so they have some stores)
Who isnt seasonally polyestrous, but is polyestrous?Rats/mice
Gerbils (slight winter depression)
(GG rat (& mouse) love polyester in ALL seasons)
Spontaneous ovulation?Rats/mice
What is the Bruce effect?In mice/rats, females may not implant if exposed to a strange male (Bruce is like a walking abortion clinic)
Who vomits?Gpigs (this is why you can fast them)
Rodents in general: which gender is usually more aggressive & what is the exception?Aggression more common btwn males.... except for female hamsters
When do you see Harderian gland secretions, (who?) & how can you make sure they arent blood?(mice rats), See when they are stressed/dz....the secretion will fluoresce under a woods lamp
Which rodent has WHITE incisors, instead of orangeish like the rest?G-pigs (for being pigs they keep their teeth quite clean)
Sialodacryoadenitis Virus (what kinda virus?) affects who? What basics to know?RATS, Corona virus (affects head structures where the crown would be), it's an inflammation of the salivary glands, cervical LNs & Harderian gland (think of ratatouille w/ huge saliva glands bc of all the yummy food)
Who does barbering & what is this?Mice, the dominant mouse will chew off the fur of the submissive mice
Who DONT you sex w/ AG distance? In which case, what do you do?Gpigs, (If you look at their genitals, it's like a Y, if there is a dot above the Y, that’s a boy, bc the dot is the prepuce. You can also apply digital pressure above the prepuce to exteriorize the penis, or palpate the os penis through the skin.) (I asked the piggie Y it had no AG distance. it didn't reply)
If using AG distance to sex, which is the longer distance-males or females?Males are longer. (Just think about taints)
Sendai virus affects who, which system affected?MOUSE/RAT (technically you can serologically test for it in hamsters, but ehhhh)
It is a RESP VIRUS (fatal in young, adults will recover)
DDX: Mycoplasma
All these guys have a ___ inguinal ring which means you need to do a ___ castrationOpen, Closed
Males DONT HAVE NIPPLES except in which spp?Gpig, hamster (pigs, i.e. ham, is full of nipples)
Who gets mycoplasma & how does it present?Rats/mice, respiratory dz
Yellowing, dry scaly tail, brown secretions at base of hair in a rat is something you see w/...Old age
Who gets Rotavirus (& age?) & how does it present?Neonatal mice, GI diarrhea-usually end up being fine
Best chance to get rats/mice that get along is if you... (2)Raise littermates together, introduce before weaning
Most common tumor of MICE? Most common tumor of RATS? (Progs?)Mice: adenocarcinoma (poor prog)
Rats: fibroadenoma (good prog) (both can get both tho, obv)
(mice taste like glands, rats are too fibrous for my taste but are better for you)
Which injxn routes are most preferred for mice/rats?IV injxns may be difficult, use intraperitoneal or subcutaneous routes instead
Mouse Hepatitis Virus. What kinda virus is this? Age affected? What are the CS?This is a Corona virus (Corona is bad for your liver) which affects neonates. You will see WASTING bc of severe enteritis → diarrhea, dehydration, jaundice. There will be no milk in the GI tract & the pups will be small. (Also the liver looks all messed up)
Where can you find mammary tumors in rats or mice?Can be found anywhere on the body in females OR males (the glands have wide distribution including the back)
RATS → resp. dz. what are the 4 most likely agents?Mycoplasma pulmonis
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Corynebacterium kutscheri
Cilia-associated Respiratory Bacillus (CAR)
2 uterine horns & 2 cervices?Chinchillas (double chin, double cervix)
Vaginal closure membrane in who?Chin, Gpig (my chin plugs the pig’s vagina......ew)
SKIN SLIP in who?Chinchillas (they practically give you that fur coat!)
Who are the obligate nose breathers?Chinchillas & Prairie dogs (chins breathe from their nose, dawg)
How often should you give your chin a dust bath? What happens if there are too many dust baths?1-2 times a week. Too many dust baths can lead to conjunctivitis & dermatitis
Who has the problem of elongates tooth roots? Describe how this is a vicious cycleCHINCHILLAS. Low fiber diet leads to less chewing, which czs abnormal wear & tooth elongation, teeth are forced apically (they cant grow down anymore) which leads to bone remodeling & tooth root dysplasia, leading to FURTHER elongation (Teeth can be seen to curve into sinuses, below jaw line & even into orbits). This all results in an inability to chew properly → slobbers, and/or 2° abscesses
Which systemic fungal infxn are chins prone to?Histoplasmosis (histo on my chin would be very gross)
Hymenolepis nana → what is this? Who gets this? What should you know?ZOONOTIC TAPEWORM!!!!
(CHG down a glass of refreshing hymen worms & enjoy your infxn)
If you have a Herpes cold sore, which rodent shouldn't you kiss?Chinchillas are susceptible to this (Herpes sore on your chin)
If your chin is in late gestation & suddenly dies, what do you think happened?Pulmonary trophoblastic emboli
3 main czs of neuro problems in chins?Encephalitis, lead poisoning (they chew everything) & heatstroke
Which ones need a SOLID cage floor?Chins (sensitive skin babies)
Gpigs (so basically 2 of the big ones)
Who are the loners?Hams, hedgehogs (honers the loners)
Where DO YOU NOT DRAW BLOOD FROM in the chinchilla?Cr. vena cava
What are 3 reasons a chin might be chewing its fur?Thyroid dz, Giardia, behavioral
DO NOT USE METRONIDAZOLE IN WHO?Chinchillas (a metro will destroy your chin so bad you wont have a face)
Hindgut fermenters? (3 or 4)Chinchilla
Prairie dogs
Sugar gliders (I think)
Sugar gliders
Crepusculargpigs (gpig is what Archer had to feed to his crepuscular ocelot)
DiurnalGerbils (have crepuscular tendencies tho)
Prairie dogs
Slobbers usually is bc of a problem w/?Malocclusion
Usually a dust bath for a chin is about 10-15 minutes. Which 1 is much shorter & what?Volcanic ash is only 3-4 minutes, bc it's more irritating
What is the normal pH & USG of chin urine?Urine pH 8.5 w/ S.G. >1.045 (JUST KNOW its very basic & the USG is very high normally) (desert sp, also herbivorous so basic urine)
Explain how choke/bloat can happen in chins & how we can help treat thisHappens like in horses, w/ excess treats, or clover - it is basically clinical colic. To help, you can feed the chin pineapple, papaya, fluids & motility suppl. (pineapple & papaya have enzymes to break down the blocked up stuff)
What czs Conjunctivitis in gpigs & how do you Tx it?Chlamydiophila caviae, NO Tx, will spontaneously resolve in 2-3 weeks
Our 2 explosive escapers are?Gpigs
Who do you basically ignore ALT levels in?Gpigs-not sensitive for liver damage
What signal do gpigs give when theyre in estrus?They show lordosis (sway their back) as a copulatory reflex
Who gets scurvy/hypovitaminosis C?Gpigs (lack the enzyme L-gulonolactase oxidase)