Exotics - Small Mammal 6

drraythe's version from 2016-02-10 01:29

Sugar gliders

Question Answer
Where do they like to live & when are they most active?They are arboreal (live in trees) & are nocturnal
Are SGs social or loners?Social
What is volant? How does this relate to SGs?Volant = They can glide! & boy, they do
Where does SGs live?In the Eucalyptus forests (of Australia/new guinea)
How would you describe the GI of a SG?They eat a lot of Eucalyptus gum, so they have a short/simple GI w/ large cecum (kinda like hind-gut fermenters)
Describe how the retina of the sugar glider is uniqueThe retina is AVASCULAR bc of its highly developed tapetum lucidum, which allows it to have superior night vision
What is a Patagium & what does it do?This is the flap of skin which extends from the SGs last digit to the back of their legs & allows them to be volplane (gliding)
What is Syndactylous? Explain this setup w/ SGsthis means having webbed toes. In the case of SGs, they have this on their hind limbs w/ the 2nd & 3rd digits (grooming comb)
What are some things you should keep in mind when performing an OHE (ovariohysterectomy) in SGs? (2)(1) The SG has 2 VAGINAS & 2 UTERI. You must remove both if you want to spay
(2) The URETERS empty into the vaginas, so they sort of have a weird cloaca thing going on. DO NOT ACCIDENTALLY LIGATE THESE URETERS when doing a spay
How would you do a castration in a SG?Can do a castration as you would w/ a male cat. (also said "scrotal ablation" but idk what this means in relation to anything else)
What kinda "exit" do SGs have?Cloacas
What are some gender specific structures for females & males?FEMALES: They have a POUCH
Describe the conformation of the male external genitalia"The beans are above the franks" i.e., the testicles are CR to the PENIS, bc the penis is located in the cloaca. ALSO NOTE: The penis might look & "act" like a worm to clients. They might be alarmed. Know what it looks like
What are the estrus cycles like?They are seasonally polyestrous, but! The males produce sperm all year around
What should their enclosure be like to accommodate their husbandry?You must house them in groups, they need an area of flying & they need a hide box
What is their diet like in the wild?In autumn they eat mostly plan exudates (eucalyptus gum), in the spring & summer they eat invertebrates
What are some things SGs can be fed in captivity? (5)Fruit
Bird diet
SGs LOVE mealworms & crickets, but what is a problem w/ eating too many of these?Theyre low in Ca & high in P → SG might develop NMBD
How do you restrain a sugar glider?You iso them
Where would you stick for a small blood sample? (2)(USE ISO) Medial tibial a (medial from stifle to tarsus) OR Lateral tail veins
Where would you stick for a large blood sample? (2)(USE ISO) Jugular, Cr vena cava
How would you determine how much drug to give?Not much info, so use dosages for cats, ferrets, hedgehogs (then go based on their weight)
If you need to place a catheter, where/how?Do an IO place is in the proximal tibia
What are some CS of Nutritional Fibrous Osteodystrophy? (3)You'd see paresis of rear limbs (kinda like hock dropping in cats), incoordination, pathological fractures (this is often seen if they are fed mealworms/crickets which arent gutloaded, bc they are high in P & low in Ca)
What are 3 nutritional dzs that SGs are prone to?Nutritional Fibrous Osteodystrophy, diarrhea & blindness
SGs are social & if they are kept alone, what things can happen?(1) SELF MUTILATION - tail, penis, limbs, scrotum, cannibalism of young
(2) Aberrant behavior - polyphagia, polydipsia, coprophagy, pacing
What are 3 types of neoplasia that SGs are prone to get?Cutaneous lymphosarcoma
Basal Cell Tumor (mammary gland)
Bronchogenic carcinoma
A client brings in their SG saying it's dead. Before you perform a necropsy, what should you consider?SGs can go into a TORPOR state (which is similar to hibernation) when there is not enough nutrition around. THEY ARENT DEAD
If you have a SG in torpor, what can you do? What must you remember to do?If you put them in an incubator it will help raise their temperature up & they will come out of it. HOWEVER, remember to have food available for them bc the problem was not enough food in the 1st place!!! There is a "glider booster" supplement you can get which has vitamins & minerals & glucose for them which you can give

Prickle pigs (Hedgehogs)

Question Answer
Are hedgehogs social or loners?LONERS. Live singly, or 1 male w/ a harem of females.
What kinda environment do hedgehogs live in?Desert
What are the 3 very well developed muscles which act as a shield (w/ spines in it) & let them pull themselves into a ball?Frontodorsalis
Panniculus carnosis orbicularis
What should you know about the spines?NOT the same as porcupines-no barbs, no toxins & don't shoot
Describe what Anting/Self Anointing is like?It usually is bc of an odor stimuli. They produce frothy saliva, which they then lap onto their spines of the back/flank. The toxins (if they ingested a toxic plant to make the saliva) might damage a potential attacker
What kinda estrous are hedgehogs?Seasonally polyestrous
If a hedgehog has some babies, what must you know?If you disturb them, they will cannibalize the babies
How are hedgehogs born?Their spines are UNDER their skin, but the spines will emerge in about a day
What should the cage be like?SMOOTH SIDED cage bc they will keep running into corners. Also a hide box is important.
What is a hedge's diet usually like & what are some things you can feed them?They are omnivorous/insectivorous. Usually you can feed them dry reduced calorie cat food (NOT KITTEN FOOD-THEY TEND TO BECOME OBESE) & you can supplement w/ 1 TBSP fruits, vegetables, gut loaded insects (if not gut loaded, NMBD might be a prob)
How do you restrain a hedgehog?Iso. Then use gloves (rubber, leather) or a towel
Where are the small volume (<0.5ml) blood draw locations?Lateral saphenous & Cephalic vein.
Where are the large volume (>0.5ml) blood draw locations?Jugular
Femoral vessels
Cr vena cava
Which routes of admin should you avoid in the hedge?Dorsal SQ injxns (lol), IV injxns
Are hedgehogs hind gut fermenters?NO
What are some routes of admin that are good in a hedgehog?You can give stuff orally, esp. if it is sweet (& if you inject stuff into mealworms, they will gobble it right up). You can do an IO catheter in the femur. You can also do IM injxns
Hedgehogs don't have their own drugs, what kinda drugs can you use?Cat & dog drugs are fine to use
Is hedge pee more acidic or basic? What is different about their BUN & which electrolyte is different but normal?Acidic urine
Higher BUN
Lower Na
Integument dz → what might cz quill loss in a hedge?MITES!! Chorioptic, Sarcoptic, Caparinia tripilis
Integument dz → what 2 fungi are hedges prone to?Microsporum sp, Trichophyton erinacei (this 1 is non-purutic, on the face/pinnae)
Why is obesity such a problem in captive hedges? What other problem does this lead to?In the wild the majority of time is spent foraging for food (not just sitting around) & lower basal metabolic rate of desert species. Bc of this they are prone to HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS
Which bacteria are hedges prone/able to get as an infxn in their GI?Salmonella
What 2 agents might cz Pneumonia in hedges?Pasteurella, Bordetella
Neoplasia → hedges are little cancer magnets. What 3 cancers are they pretty prone to?(Can be oral or just about anywhere) SCC, Mast cell, Lymphosarcoma
What is happening w/ wobbly hedgehog syndrome?This is a genetic disorder which czs progressive paralysis. It is similar to MS in humans. No Tx.

Prairie dogs

Question Answer
When are pdogs active?Diurnal-during the day
Do hedgehogs hibernate?No
Are pdog social or loners?Social
What’s unique about respiratory system of pdogs?OBLIGATE nasal breathers
What is pdogs teeth like?The INCISORS grow continuously
What is the diet of pdogs like?STRICT herbivorous
What is a pdogs GI like?HIND GUT FERMENTORS
How many anal sac ducts do they have?Trigonal-3
How can you determine the gender of a pdog?Visible scrotal sac in males, Anogenital distance very close in females
What should you know about anatomy if you are going to castrate a pdog?OPEN inguinal rings. (Testicle may be retracted abdominally. also Fat may make testicular isolation challenging)
What should you feed your pdog?You can feed them rodent blocks, alfalfa hay, grass hay-he said that timothy hay is all they need (bc in wild, forage grasses)
What kinda cage should you have for your pdog? What kinda stuff should be in the cage?WIRE CAGE-they can chew through wood. Provide some PVC pipes bc they like to tunnel & thick substrate. Also a nest box for sleeping
What are 2 methods of restraint for pdogs?(1) Ketamine combinations (Medetomidine, Valium, Acepromazine)
(2) Iso (mask or blind intubation)
Where would you collect a small blood sample?L or M saphenous, Cephalic veins
Where would you collect a large blood sample?Jugular, Cr vena cava
4 good locations for IM injxns?Forelimbs (little muscle mass)
Epaxial mm
4 locations for vascular access?Cephalic
I/O (tibia)
Which drugs should you avoid?They are rodents w/ primarily G+ flora (& HIND GUT FERMENTORS) so AVOID Macrolides, Lincosamides & Penicillins
Once adults, pdogs should only be fed...Rodent blocks & hay (timothy hay)
What are some problems which arise w/ pdogs & obesity? How can you help curb this?They are OBLIGATE NOSE BREATHERS & will have dyspnea when obese. They can also get hepatic lipidosis. Remember, only rodent blocks & hay for adults & provide plenty of active time w/ rodent balls & PVC pipes
2 major infectious/zoonotic dzs which pdogs carry?MONKEY POX, YERSINIA PESTIS (plague)
How can monkey pox be spread?Contact or respiratory droplets
CS of monkey pox? Tx?Fever
Nodular rash
No Tx just humane euthanasia
CS of plague?Nonspecific: Lethargy, depression, respiratory distress, lymphadenopathy, anorexia. Do serologic testing (pdogs are known reservoirs!)
2 GI bact which they are prone to?Salmonella & Clostridium piliformes
Why is dyspnea extra bad for pdogs?They are OBLIGATE NASAL BREATHERS
What are the 2 major czs of dyspnea in pdogs?(1) Obesity
(2) ODONTOMA → This is a neoplasia of upper incisors tooth root. Possible dietary management related. Since they are obligate nasal breathers & this extends into their nasal cavities, the only way to help them breathe is to Create new nasal stoma to manage the dz (basically bore a hole in their sinuses)

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