Exotics - Small Mammal 5

drraythe's version from 2016-02-10 01:40

Gurbels (KERBELS!)

Question Answer
When are gerbils most active (during day, night, etc)Diurnal (during day) w/ Crepuscular tendencies (Active at dawn & dusk). Another slide says in captivity tho, their activity is nocturnal or crepuscular (peak activity at night).
What kinda enviro. Do gerbils usually live in? Are they social or loners?Desert enviro (NE china & Mongolia) & they are social
What kinda estrous are gerbils? What kinda ovulation?Polyestrous, w/ a slight winter depression. Ovulation is spontaneous. (there is a fertile post-partum estrous & gestation may be prolonged bc of the post-partum estrous causing delayed implantation)
When do you want to pair gerbils? How long does the pairing last? What should you know after you pair them?Pair at 7-8 weeks. They form stable monogamous pair bonds. DO NOT introduce new gerbils into the group after this, there will be aggression.
If a gerbil is stomping its foot, what do you think is going on?Do this when theyre excited or threatened
How do you determine gender in gerbils? What is a structure both genders have?The anogenital distance is greater in males. Also males have an os penis (baculum), their scrotum is darkly pigmented & they have a midventral marking gland. Both M & F have genital papilla.
How many mammae/where/what gender?Females have 2 pairs of mammae-thoracic & inguinal
*If you have a gerbil w/ a midventral patch of missing fur, are you concerned?No. Gerbils have a midventral marking gland there
What is up w/ the midventral marking gland? (Gender diff? purpose?)It has hormonal control & is responsive to testosterone, which means its twice as large in males.
How many toes on front & back limbs?4 on front & 5 on the back
What are 3 adaptations for the very arid enviro they live in?DONT sweat & produce super concentrated urine (only 3-4 drops a day) & have SUPER ENLARGED ADRENAL GLANDS bc of their role in water conservation?
***Which gland in the gerbil is super enlarged & why?Super enlarged adrenal glands, bc they produce aldosterone which is involved in water conservation
*When does the thymus involute?TRICK QUESTION - it doesn't! PERSISTS in adults!
What’s the diastema?Gap btwn their incisors & molars (1 pair incisors & 3 pair molars ← dont think we need to know)
how do a gerbils teeth grow or not grow?Incisors hypsodont & grow continuously. But molars do NOT.
What is a gerbil’s diet like? What should you feed them w/ & how? What should you NOT feed them?Opportunistic vegetarians. You should feed them about 8g/day of a pelleted feed & feed them on the ground. Do NOT feed them treats & do NOT feed them rat/mouse food ((may develop periodontal dz, obesity & diabetes
What’s an essential component of the enclosure you need? What kinda substrate should you have?NEED A SECURE LID-they are escape artists (they usually come back to the cage which is nice tho). Sand or corn byproducts make good substrate, be sure to avoid cedar (VOCs). (Nice tho, very concentrated urine means easy to clean, but still clean regularly)
Explain how you manually restrain a gerbil (3)Scoop up in palm, OR scruff. If holding tail, grab securely at BASE of tail, the tip will deglove as a defense mechanism
What should you examine 1st in your PE? What should you examine last? How long should your exam take?1st start w/ observational exam to get BASELINE RR before you start freaking them out. Examine oral cavity last, they hate that. Your exam should take 5min.
What’s up w/ temp or resp auscultation of a gerbil?Temp not usually done & asculting is kinda futile. Just listening to the respirations is more helpful than asculting.
Under what condition would you perform a venipuncture? What is their blood volume & how much can you draw?Do UNDER ANESTHESIA. Their blood volume is 65-80ml/kg (which is basically 7.7ml/100g) & you can draw 0.8mL safely
Where are venipuncture sites for LAB gerbils?Retroorbital venous plexus, cardiac puncture
What are the less invasive venipuncture sites you'd prolly use in a pet gerbil? Which sites arent really super great?(Less invasive usually gets you a lower volume). Saphenous vein, cr vena cava or jugular. NOT super awesome: cut toenail doesnt give a good representation of the blood & the tail vein will have higher leukocytes & lymphocytes than cardiac blood
How common is Serumal Lipemia? Is there any reasons/gender predilections/etc?It's common & even more common in males >13mo. A major cz of this is if sunflower seeds are added to the diet.
What’s unique about their RBCs & what's the RBC lifespan?Stippled RBCs normal & reticulocytes higher is normal. Their RBC lifespan is only 9-10 days which makes sense for the other stuff.
What is the sexual dimorphism when it comes to blood Parameters?MALES = HIGHER. MCV is higher, Hb & Hct is higher. MCHC is higher. The total amount of leukocytes is higher, as well as lymphocytes. Their lymphocyte to heterophil ratio is higher also-6.1:1 in males & 3.2:1 in females ← almost double
If you're doing a fecal smear in a gerbil, what are you prolly looking for?Giardia (internal parasites are uncommon in gerbils).
Perineal tape prep can be used to detect what in a gerbil?Hymenolepiasis (a cestode aka tapeworm)
Facial eczema (aka sore nose, aka nasal dermatitis) → how does this present? What problems can it cz? Ddx?You will see Erythematous lesions adjacent to nares, as well as ↑ Harderian gland secretions. There will be alopecia & moist dermatitis. This can lead to 2° infxns such as w/ Staph. aureus or S xylosis. (czs are usually the humidity is too low, or there is pine or cedar shavings). DDX: barbering
How can you help prevent facial eczema? How can you help treat it?PREVENTION: Sand bath, appropriate humidity (not too low!), avoid volatile wood shavings
Tx: Cleans face & give topical and/or systemic ABx for 2° infxn
What is the "tail slip" of a gerbil?Antipredator mechanism-will deglove their tail to get away, so never grab anywhere but at the base of the tail if you must.
Tyzzer’s dz → what czs this & what part of the body is affected?Clostridium pilliformis (in a tizzy? take a pill), GI tract, but gerbils are very susceptible so Death w/ or w/o premonitory signs or diarrhea or other signs is a possibility
What would you see on necropsy of a gerbil affected w/ Tyzzer's dz?Multiple hepatic necrotic foci
What are predisposing enviro factors to Tyzzer's dz? Is there any Tx?Overcrowding
High environmental temperature
Heavy parasite load
Poor diet all contribute
Contaminated bedding is a major cz (it's Clostridium, so it can live in spore form, get rid of all bedding)
Tx is supportive care & maybe tetracycline, but gerbils are very susceptible so usually they're found dead
What are some viral dzs of gerbils?Non listed-very rare in gerbils! Yay!
What are some fungal dzs gerbils can get?Rare-if anything, going to get Dermatophytosis (Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp.), which we care about bc of zoonotic potential
What are 3 parasites which gerbils are prone to?(Parasitism is rare in gerbils) Giardia, Pinworms & Hymenolepis nana (cestode)
What are the CS of pinworms in gerbils?No clinical dz
**What is Hymenolepis nana, how does it affect gerbils & what is important to know about this?It’s a tapeworm (cestode). It results in dehydration, mucoid diarrhea & debilitation. It's highly infectious & ZOONOTIC***
What is the main ectoparasite of the gerbil? What are the CS?Demodex meroni
Thin scaly skin
2° bacterial pyoderma
What are the most common neoplasms of the gerbil?Female reproductive system, skin, subcutis, tumors of the ventral abdominal scent gland, Melanomas of the ear, foot, tail base
****Whats important to know about Gerbil seizures? Explain what's going onGerbils have an INHERITED, GENETIC problem where they have a Deficiency in glutamine synthetase. Bc of this, they will start to have Spontaneous, reflex, stereotypic, tonic-clonic seizures which start at 2mo & RESOLVE AT 6mo!! Usually Sudden stress, handling, new environment precipitate this problem, but early handling can help mitigate. No Tx recc & no last effect of seizure-they'll just go away after 6mo
*If you are going to administer things intraperitoneally, how would you do it & what must you keep in mind?Put them in ventrodorsal recumbency (on their back), then travel below abdomen & extend their hind limb. ***INJECT IN THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE GERBIL TO AVOID THE CECUM, LIVER & SPLEEN
Which routes to give medication should you avoid & what's the alternative?Dont admin in food or water-wont know how much they actually got. For enteral, gastric lavage or oral syringe preferred
What is Dysbiosis & how sensitive are gerbils to this?Clostridial overgrowth & enterotoxemia 2° to killing of natural gram positive flora from inappropriate antibiotic administration. Gerbils are LESS SUSCEPTIBLE than hamsters, tho
What is the prognosis of dysbiosis & what are some Tx/support options?GUARDED prognosis. Some things you can do to try to help are: fluid therapy, Metronidazole, motility modifiers, nutritional support, transfaunation, lactobacillus, Cholestyramine (Binds toxins of enterotoxemia)
What are 3 contraindicated drugs in the gerbil??Streptomycin
Procaine (Direct toxicity neuromuscular blockade)
What are 4 ABx which WOULD be good for gerbils?Sulfa drugs
How long would you fast a gerbil before anesthesia?TRICK QUESTION - You would NOT FAST a gerbil before anesthesia - they have limited glycogen stores & they cant vomit
Which anesthetic agent would you want & which would you not want?ISO VIA FACE MASK would be the best. Injectable agents should be avoided, bc they cz fatality, prolonged recovery & an inability to provide a surgical plane of anesthesia
What should you keep in mind if castrating a gerbil?PERFORM A CLOSED CASTRATION-they have open inguinal canals
If a gerbil's tail is degloved, what is recommended you do?Amputation of bloody stump recommended