Exotics - Small Mammal 4

drraythe's version from 2016-02-10 01:38

Hamtaro(s)! (Whatever you do don’t look that up!)

Question Answer
Why do we like Chinese hamsters for lab stuff?They have the fewest amount of chromosomes-11; 2N = 22 (so Research cytogenetics, diabetes mellitus, toxicology)
What should you know about the European hamster?They are VERY GRUMPY (also the largest)
How much volume is a SAFE blood draw for a hamster? (Volume?)5.5 ml/kg. (Volume is 78 ml/kg)
What should be noted about the cage for a hamster? How about food/water things? What should bedding be?In the cage you should have a LARGE door to remove the hamster safely & make sure the cage isnt made of soft wood, metal or plastic or they'll chew their way out. Also provide a hide area. You want small heavy food bowls (they'll flip them) & water sipper bottles. For bedding you can use recycles paper, corn byproducts, or wood shavings (NOT AROMATIC WOOD THO)
Caution w/ hamster wheels?Trim long haired hamsters (they'll get caught in them) (also not the wire ones-it’ll break their legs)
Are hamsters social or loners?Usually kept solitary
What is the hamster's normal diet?Mainly herbiverous, w/ occasional small vertebrates & insects
What should you probably avoid in a hamsters diet?Few if any seeds → will cz osteoporosis (seeds high in P & low in Ca)
How many toes in the front? Back?5 in the front (need for food & bedding manipulation) 5 in the back
What are hamster sebaceous glands used for, what do they look like, where are they & when do they change?They are used to mark territory & stimulate mating bh. They are located on the hip/flank & are dark brown patches which are fun covered (larger in males than in females). A SEXUALLY AROUSED MALE will have readily visible glands & secretions will cz fur to become matted
What tooth problem are hamsters prone to?Caries (cavities) bc their molars tend to retain food. Particular diets will make this worse (like seeds)
Where does the hamster cheek pouch begin & end, how do they empty it & how does it not get prolapsed all the time?Starts as an invagination from lateral cheek at the diastema. It extends along the head & neck to the scapulae. The sac is thin walled, distensible & muscular & is highly vascularized. There is a ligament at the end of the pouch which anchors it so that when the hamster empties the pouch it does not prolapse. Emptying happens when they manually squeeze contents forward w/ front paws.
Why do hamsters only regurge & vomiting is unlikely?There is a limiting ridge at the junction of the esophagus & the stomach
Explain the stomach anatomy of a hamsterThere is a proventriculus which is a squamous forestomach where fermentation can take place. There is also the ventriculus
What is unique about the hamster brain?SMOOTH CEREBRUM (generalized areas of fxn). They have LARGE olfactory bulbs & have acute hearing & olfaction
What’s cool about hamster communication? Hamster recognition?Can communicate w/ ultrasonic & sonic communication. Also, hamsters can recognize individuals & receptive mates by odor (large olfactory bulbs in brain)
How many nipples does a hamster have?FEMALES have 6 pairs of nipples
How can you determine the gender of a hamster?Males have an ↑ anogenital distance, adult females have a more blunt posterior, the scrotal bulge is pronounced in males & females have nipples (6 pair)
What should you know about hamster repro? (1 big thing)TAKE OUT THE MALE. The female will chew his head off
What should you know about hamster bites? (& what should you avoid)They can bite just bc they can! Or if roughly handled, startled awaked or injured. So DONT SURPRISE THEM & WAKE THEM SLOWLY & GENTLY
2 methods of restraint for a hamster?(1) Over the back grip: place hamster on flat surface, cover hamster w/ your palm w/ thumb hear the head & middle finger near the tail
(2) Grasp loose skin of scruff & back-when skin is taught over abdomen & chest, ham is secure. Eyes might bulge **caution-there is a lot of skin here. Might still turn & bite
About how long should a PE of a hamster take? Which part should you do last? What’s important to get accurate?<5min. ORAL LAST. Make sure you have the weight to the gram.
What tools should you use during the oral exam?Metal otoscope cones for oral exam-they'll chew up anything else.
What is the safe amount for a blood draw?0.5 ml is a safe amount to draw
Blood draw places for lab & pets are same as in gerbil, know theseJugular & cr vena cava is your best bet
How does castration affect the blood?Can ↓ RBCs by 25-30%. It can be alleviated by admin of testosterone
*What does the WBC population look like in hamsters?They are a Lymphocytic species which means 60-80% of WBCs are lymphocytes
What’s really important to know about hamsters before you start doing a necropsy?THEY HIBERNATE. They will look dead. Were they out in the cold garage? Make sure you check this. (I dont think we need to know, but the WBCs ↓ during hibernation)
What are 3 reasons you'd want to do radiographs on a hamster?Cheek pouch impaction, bloat & abdominal masses
Poorly defined individual organs on radiographs for hamsters-how can you ID the heart? Kidneys?Heart Apex point’s caudoventrally, left. Kidneys dorsal near 1st lumbar vertebral body.
What 5 viruses can you serologically test for in hamsters?Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus, Sendai Virus, Mouse pneumonia, virus, Hamster polyoma virus, Hamster parvovirus
Tyzzer’s dz is czd by what agent? When do hamsters usually get this dz?Czd by Clostridium pilliforme (in a tizzy, take a pill. remember Clostridium looks like a tennis racket)
Happens in immunocompromised hams
How sensitive are hams to Tyzzer's dz? What are the CSs? What does necropsy look like? (Tx?)Hams have ↑ mortality to Tyz than compared to mice & rats. They appear generally ill-poor hair coat, depression, dehydration, diarrhea, death w/o signs. On necropsy you will see necrotic hepatic foci, w/ maybe intestinal lesions. (tx of supportive care & ABx)
Proliferative Ileitis aka WET TAIL is czd by what? What body system is affected? What should you know about this agent?Lawsonia intracellularis, causing DIARRHEA (GI) in any age ham. *there is POTENTIAL SPREAD to other species
Wet tail (proliferative ileitis) czs what sequale & what is Tx?(diarrhea czd by Lawsonia intracellularis) Sequale of obstruction, intussusception, rectal prolapse. (From inflammation & straining). Can give fluid support & ABx
Explain what is happening in dysbiosis & how do you dx?Dysbiosis is an IATROGENIC condition where the inappropriate ABx is used on a ham & their normal flora are killed off, allowing an Overgrowth of Clostridium difficile. Bc it's iatrogenic, you can dx based off of Hx.
What are some inappropriate ABx to give to a ham? How would you treat them if you gave them 1 of these & they got dysbiosis?Penicillin, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Erythromycin, Lincomycin, Vancomycin, Clindamycin, Cephalosporins, Bacitracin, Oral Gentamicin, Tylosin & Dihydrostreptomycin, Streptomycin. Tx is like for the gerbil-supportive care & appropriate broad-spectrum ABx
What are 4 major players in causing pneumonia in hams?CAR (cilia associated respiratory bacillus)
Corynebacterium kutcheri
Pasteurella pneumotropica
Streptococcal spp (& Bordetella Bronchiseptica)
*How does Bordetella affect hamsters? What should you know about this dz agent?Hamsters are RESISTANT to it, but can be carriers & it is ZOONOTIC, ESP TO CHILDREN. If they get it, CSs are tachypnea or dyspnea, purulent Rhinitis, sticky eyelids & a POOR prognosis
What 3 nutritional disorders are hamsters prone to?Nutritional 2° Hyperparathyroidism & osteoporosis, Bladder Stones & molar caries (cavities)
*What is the most common cz of death in the aged hamster?AMYLOIDOSIS (no Tx)
What problem can hamsters get w/ their adrenals?HYPERadrenocortisism
What heart condition do aged hamsters usually get? CS?They get cardiomyopathy & will present w/ tachypnea, lethargy, anorexia, hypothermic extremities. (tx is similar to dogs & cats)
**Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus → what kinda virus czs this? Which age does it affect? What’s important to know about the vector?ARENAvirus which czs a rare dz of the YOUNG hamster. IT IS ZOONOTIC
**What are the CS of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus? How do you dx & what must you do if the ham is positive upon necropsy?A YOUNG hamster which has chronic wasting, subclinical infxn & MULTIORGAN inflammation
Which dz must you throw away the enclosure due to it being able to persist in the enviro for a long time?Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus
Hamster polyoma virus is czd by what? What kinda problems does it cz? How do you dx this?Polyomavirus is a DNA ONCOGENIC VIRUS. It will cz neoplasms in ADULT & young hamsters
DX: Cytology or histology along w/ tissue PCR confirms the Dx
Explain how hamster polyoma virus affects adults & young hams differently(1) ADULT: Usually get Trichoepithelioma (hair follicle base tumor)
(2) YOUNG: Usually get Multicentric lymphoma
What are the CS for hamster parvovirus?There will be a ↓ litter size for the dam, in the baby hamsters 2-4 weeks old you will see a dome shaped crania, potbelly & testicular atrophy, incisor discoloration, malformation & loss
Which virus of hamsters czs weird birth defects?Hamster parvovirus
What fungal dzs do hamsters get?Fungal dz is rare, but they can get Dermatophytosis (Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp) & these have ZOONOTIC POTENTIAL
What is the pinworm that hamsters can get? What is the description of the hamster most likely to get pinworms? How does it spread/infect?S. mesocriceti (hamster) ← (not sure if need to know specifically or not). This usually happens to young immunocompromised males. The infxn can be fecal-oral or aerosolization (eggs so tiny they can float)
What are the CS of a hamster w/ pinworms? What must you do if the hamster has pinworms?See CSs in a HEAVY LOAD of parasites. You will see ↓ activity, weight loss, rectal prolapse, rectal irritation, self-mutilation, impaction & intussusception can all be seen. Environmental cleanup & Tx is NECESSARY
What is a Ddx of demodectic mange in the ham?Hyperadrenocortisism (hairloss, skin probs, etc)
What are the 3 main ectoparasites of hamsters?(1) Demodectic mange (D. aurati which is elongate & D. criceti which is short & stubby)
(2) Notoedres catii (mange of mites)
(3) N. notoedres (another mange mite) ← INTENSE PRURITUS. Tx all w/ Ivermectin (duh)
What are the 2 tapeworms which can affect hams? How do you Tx?Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta. Tx w/ Praziquantel.
**Zoonotic tapeworm?Hymenolepis nana
Hymenolepis nana is aka? What’s important to know about it? What are the CS?Aka dwarf tapeworm. IT IS ZOONOTIC!! CSs can range from benign, to intestinal obstruction & death if there is a heavy load. (Direct or indirect lifestyle, CAN AUTOINFECT HUMANS)
Hams are also susceptible to what 2 GI parasites which aren’t tapes?Giardia & Cryptosporidia
When does a hams risk of neoplasia Inc? What are the 4 most common neoplasms (based on location in body), in order from most to least?>2yrs, over 50% incidence of tumors. Most common in order are: endocrine>lymphoreticular>dermatologic>GI
How does an adrenal cortex neoplasia present?(Carcinoma or adenoma)
You will see alopecia
BH change
Skin hyperpigmentation (basically Cushing’s)
↑ serum cholesterol
Explain the forms of lymphoma in a young hamster & in the old ham.(1) ADULT: Gets (a) multicentric-(Thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, liver) (b) Cutaneous form (Lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, patchy alopecia, exfoliative erythroderma)
(2) YOUNG: These get EPIZOOTIC due to Hamster polyoma virus in young hamsters
What is the most common skin tumor of hamsters & where do these especially like to hang out?MELANOMA, the flank glands in males are especially targeted
Who is more susceptible to dysbiosis-hams or gerbils?HAMS-they have that proventriculus & such
If a hamster is in non-hypovolemic shock, what is the Crystalloid/colloid combination you can give it?10-15 ml/kg / 5 ml/kg hetastarch
Which type of castration should you perform?CLOSED castration-they have open inguinal rings
Describe a cheek pouch pexy procedure(Necessary to avoid recurrence of cheek pouch eversion) Do a full thickness, percutaneous (just go through all the skin w/ the needle), single suture of 4-0 or smaller material snugly. No stent necessary. Do NOT w/o food & then remove in roughly 10-14 days

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