Exotics - Small Mammal 3

drraythe's version from 2016-02-10 01:36

G pigpig (Little piggy no no, little piggy go home!)

Question Answer
What is the gpig diet like?Herbivorous ONLY. (Can feed gpig pellets, grasshay, need water, fresh veggies, NEED ASORBIC ACID WHICH IS VITAMIN C)
Are gpigs social or loners?Social - Seek physical contact w/ other GP when housed in group
When are gpigs most active?Crepuscular (dawn & dusk)
What should you know about gpig food preferences?They are formed early in life... May refuse to eat food if shape, type presentation is changed after 6 mo of age → SO, Expose to a variety of foodstuffs, sizes & types while young to avoid problems later
Which vitamin do gpigs need & why?VITAMIN C! They lack the enzyme L-gulonolactase oxidase which converts glucose to ascorbic acid (vit C).
What are foods high in vit c which you can give to gpigs?Leafy greens (kale, parsley, beet greens, chicory, spinach)
Red & green peppers
Kiwi fruit
How often should you change food/water dishes?Often - They crap a lot & in everything
How can you teach a gpig to use a sipper bottle?Inject chewed slurry of pellets into sipper tube of water bottle to teach to use
*What should the construct of the cage be like?Plastic metal or wire caging w/ a solid floor (give a cardboard box hide too)
**Describe what the incisors & molars are like in a gpig?INCISORS /AND/ MOLARS GROW CONTINUOUSLY UNLIKE ALL THE OTHER RODENTS SO FAR (all hypsodont)
**What color are a gpigs incisors?WHITE, unlike all the other rodents
What’s different about a gpigs GI tract? What does this mean for its bh?They have a LONG colon (its like 60% of their GI, a rats is 16%), their normal flora is lactobacillus & they are coprophagic-so they are basically tiny horses
How do you determine the gender of a gpig?NOT AG distance & NOT nipples-they have little difference & both have nipples. If you look at their genitals, it's like a Y, if there is a dot above the Y, thats a boy, bc the dot is the prepuce. You can also apply digital pressure above the prepuce to exteriorize the penis, or palpate the os penis through the skin.
What should you know about the vaginal membrane of the gpig female?It is intact unless she is in estrus or its prepartum
When do males/females reach sexual maturity? What kinda cycle does the female have & how long is the cycle?Males reach maturity in 3mo, females in 2mo (Peak reproductive activity at 4-20mo). They are Non-seasonally polyestrous w/ spontaneous ovulation, so they breed year round in captivity. Their cycle is about 15-17 days. Can usually breed till about 4-5yr
What can happen in a female gpig postpartum?Fertile post-partum estrus occurs 2-10 hrs post parturition
What is the bh of a gpig in proestrus? (Basically, mating bh?)Active, chase their cage mates, sway the hindquarters, make gutteral sounds
What signal do gpigs give when theyre in estrus?They show lordosis (sway their back) as a copulatory reflex
How can you confirm there was copulation w/ gpigs?You can find a copulatory plug
*****Whats super important to know about the timing of breeding your female gpig?THEIR PELVIC SYMPHISIS CLOSES AT 6 MONTHS! If you don't breed them before then (notes say prior to 7-8mo) then you will need a C-section to get babies out from a conception after this time window
What condition are the babies born in?Precocious-fully furred & open eyes! W/in a few hrs & walk & lap food from pans.
How do you carry a gpig?Support their weight in 1 hand, cup dorsum in the other hand
Instead of fight or flight they have...Freeze or flight. & they might try to explosively escape from your grasp, so keep GP not used to handling in carrier
How do you pick up a gpig?Place hand across shoulders. Thumb behind front legs & fingers well forward on opposite side. Pick up & hold upright.
How to carry a gpig?Support bottom in 1 hand & scruff w/ the other
Which part of the PE is done last?Oral cavity
What are the 3 main sites for venipuncture?Metatarsal vein, lateral saphenous vein, cephalic vein (small amounts), cr vena cava (NOT JUG-they have no neck! so difficult & stressful)
How much can be collected?7-10% of BV can be collected (so roughly 1.5ml he said)
What is the pH for gpig urine?9.0 is NORMAL (just know its super basic)
What should you know about ALT levels in gpigs?ALT activity low in gpigs, so not a sensitive or specific marker for hepatocyte injury
Hypercholesteremia is ____ in the gpigCommon. (Associated w/ fatty infiltration of liver & other tissues)
***What is a Foa-Kurloff cell?? Describe. When are they seen most? What do they think they do?Leukocyte unique to the Guinea Pig & Capybara. It’s a mononuclear cell the size of a large lymphocyte, w/ a VERY LARGE, SLIGHTLY GRANULAR, MAGENTA cytoplasmic inclusion body. They are highest in females during preg, it may create a physiological barrier btwn fetus & dam
The predominant circulating leukocyte in healthy guinea pigs is the___?Lymphocyte. Foa-Kurloff cells may comprise 3 to 4% of leukocyte diff. count.
Which castration method (preferred population control method) can you do in gpigs?CLOSED OR OPEN! Altho their inguinal ring is open, they have a large epididymal fat pad in the vaginal tunic so theyre less likely to herniate
Vascular access in a gpig...what would you do?Usually IO-you can even use a syringe pump w/ IO. IV is too difficult to access & maintain, but in labs a port can be put in.
Where do you give SQ injxns? IM?SQ: Upper back
IM: Lumbar mm
Do you preanesthetically fast gpigs?...YES. Unlike all the rest, yes. The fasting ↓ mechanical compression of lungs & diaphragm & ↓ chances of vomiting. (USE ISO)
Antibiotic associated enterotoxemia aka dysbiosis... what is a gpigs predom type of GI flora? Which ABx are they sensitive to, bc of their type of flora?Predom G+.
Sensitive to Penicillin, Ampicillin, Chlortetracycline, Tetracycline, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Lincomycin... killing off their flora leads to an overgrowth of Clostridium difficile
CS & Tx for dysbiosis?CS: Diarrhea, Anorexia, Dehydration, Hypothermia
Tx: (1) supportive (warmth, fluids, lactobacillus or live yogurt culture, healthy gpig slurry)
(2) To Tx the c-diff: Chloramphenicol 50 mg/kg PO q 8h, Metronidazole PO (dont think we need to know super details)
If you are Tx a gpig w/ antimicrobials, what should you do?provide lactobacillus
What are safe choices of ABx for gpigs?Sulfas
Chloramphenicol (DONT give flor instead of chlor)
Aminoglycosides (cefazolin parenterally)
Why do gpigs get scurvy? What are the CS of this (of hypovintaminosis C) & Tx?Need CONSTANT source of vitamin C & it cant be provided in pellets bc it has a SHORT half-life. Will see breakdown of connective tissue including bone, blood & skin. Tx w/ injectable or oral vitamin C
Infectious Enteritis (diarrhea) → what are the main bacterial contenders? (3 main, 3 extra)(Usually fecal contamination of food)... Bolded ones were C. perferingens, E. coli, L. monocytogenes. Also listed were Salmonella, C. pilliforme & Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Infectious Enteritis (diarrhea) → what are the main parasitic contenders? (4)Cryptosporidium
Paraspidodera uncinata (roundworm)
Infectious Enteritis (diarrhea) → what is the main viral contender?Possibly Corona
What is going on w/ the dz "slobbers"?Theyre all wet & drooly (Wetting of chin & forepaw, 2° moist dermatitis), which happens bc theyre in pain. Usually due to tooth overgrowth (incisors & molars hypsodont), where the maxillary teeth overgrow laterally & the mandibular teeth overgrow medially & it entraps the tongue.
Main contender for causing pneumonia in the gpig?Streptococcus pneumoniae
Viral pneumonia czs what problem?Necrotizing bronchopneumonia
**Cervical Lymphadenitis → czd by what? Dx & Tx?Usually there is some sort of trauma to the oral mucosa (rough forage, malocclusion), or stress. At this point Streptococcus zooepidemicus (or S. moniliformis but this was less emphasized) sets in & soon there are Pus filled ventral cervical masses. Septicemia & bronchopenumonia are possible
DX: Culture sensitivity/cytology
Tx: Surgical excision or lance & drain, antibiotic therapy, supportive care...Correct underlying cz!
**Which mite affects gpigs? CSs, important things to know? Tx?Trixacarus caviae is a ZOONOTIC!!!! Mite which czs intense pruritus, excoriation of back & shoulders, alopecia. It will be so pruritic it will look like it is having seizures. Recc Tx is a LIME SULFUR DIP bc some are resistant to Ivermectin.
Explain what is happening in Pregnancy Toxemia, what are the CS? Tx?Occurs in Primiparous (1st time pregnant), obese sows, during the final 2 weeks of pregnancy-obesity & fasting are the predisposing factors. There will be abrupt onset anorexia, quit drinking, 24 hours prostrate & dyspneic, there will be severe hypoglycemia, an enlarged fatty liver & empty stomach & DIC. Tx is usually unrewarding-PREVENTION IS KEY! Good quality diet to prevent obesity & avoid stresses in late pregnancy
What czs Conjunctivitis in gpigs & how do you Tx it?Chlamydiophila caviae, NO Tx, will spontaneously resolve in 2-3 weeks
Dermatophytosis → age more affected? CS? DX? Tx?More common in younger gpigs. Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis are main contenders → ZOONOTIC!!!. You will see Pruritus, focal circular alopecia w/ crusting-Face, forehead, ears progress to over the back & down the limbs
DX w/ DTM (dermatophyte test medium, a culture)
TX: Antifungals

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