Exotics - Small Mammal 2

drraythe's version from 2016-02-10 01:32


Question Answer
Special thing about resp system of chins?OBLIGATE NOSE BREATHERS
Are they social or loners?Social, live in pairs or are polygamous
What are the chinchilla teeth like?ALL of them grow continuously
How many toes in front & rear?4 in front & back
What is a defense mechanism 1 should be quite careful about when restraining a chinchilla?SKIN SLIP - They can have large chunks of skin come off in an attempt to get away
Explain the 2 kinds of fecal pellets chinchillas have(1) Nitrogen poor - fecal pellets
(2) Nitrogen rich - for cecotrophy
Describe the female repro system of the chin2 uterine horns & 2 cervices, also vaginal closure membrane open only at parturition & 2-4 d at estrus
What kinda estrus do chins have?They are seasonally polyestrous.
What are mammaries like in chins?3 pairs - 1 inguinal & 2 lateral thoracic pairs
How do baby chins look when they come out?Precocious-fully furred, open eyes, teeth present (also adult females can serve as surrogates)
What is a formula for supplemental feeding for baby chins?Evaporated milk: Water 1:1 w/ small amount of glucose
Describe the urogenital system setup in male chinsNo true scrotum-testes retained in the inguinal canal or abdomen, inguinal canal is open, Penis is readily apparent below anus, Penis can be everted at birth
How can you determine gender in chins?Male AG distance greater than female, and penis is readily apparent below anus & penis can be everted even right at birth
What are some requirements for the enclosure you keep chins in?need solid floor, they chew so be careful of materials used, need a nest box & are very active so need space & things to do
What temp & humidity do chins need & what important thing must you know in relation to this? (Dont worry too much about numbers)They need a Dry environment 50-68 degrees F w/ humidity of <50%.... important to know that they can get Heat stroke at 82-86 degrees F! (Youd think weird bc in desert, but that's the case). Do NOT tolerate dampness.
How often should you give your chin a dust bath? What happens if there are too many dust baths?1-2 times a week. Too many dust baths can lead to conjunctivitis & dermatitis.
What are 4 types of dust baths you can provide?(1) Blue cloud/ clue sparkle
(2) Fuller’s earth (kaolin w/ magnesium silicate) 1:9 w/ silver sand
(3) Perfume free talc + food grade cornstarch
(4) Volcanic ash (only allow access 3-4 minutes) (usually access is ~15min, but volcanic ash is more irritating)
When are chinchillas active?Nocturnal
What kinda diet do chinchillas have?Herbivorous
Too many treats can cz problems-what problems? & about how many treats is appropriate (examples of treats)?Too many treats can cz enteritis due to insufficient roughage. Examples of treats are Dried fruit, nuts, seeds, raisins, figs & no more than 1 teaspoon/day
Which part of the PE do you do last?Oral
Why might you especially want to check the rectum of a chinchilla?Impacted feces would be there
How do you restrain a chinchilla?Similar restraint to GP (gentle but firm, around chest behind front legs so animal feels secure w/ support underneath animal)
What are some venipuncture sites? Where DONT you draw?You can use the Lat. Saphenous, cephalic & jugular. HOWEVER, THE Cranial cava not recommended
What is the normal pH & USG of chin urine?Urine pH 8.5 w/ S.G. >1.045 (JUST KNOW its very basic & the USG is very high normally)
Slobbers usually indicates a problem w/ what?Malocclusion
Explain how choke/bloat can happen in chins & how we can help treat thisHappens like in horses, w/ excess treats, or clover-it is basically clinical colic. To help, you can feed the chin Pineapple, papaya, fluids & motility suppl. (pineapple & papaya have enzymes to break down the blocked up stuff)
Diarrhea can be czd by what 2 types of things?Overfeeding fresh foods, or infectious agents
What are the CS of slobbers? Prognosis?Loss of appetite → weight loss → ↓ amount of stool. Drooling. Matted fur around mouth & poor coat condition. Eye discharge or nasal discharge. Fistulous track under eye, Palpable protrusion under lower jaw.... long-term prognosis is poor
Explain the process behind Elongated Tooth Roots in chinchillasIt's a vicious cycle. low fiber diet leads to less chewing, which czs abnormal wear & tooth elongation, teeth are forced apically (they cant grow down anymore) which leads to bone remodeling & tooth root dysplasia, leading to FURTHER elongation (Teeth can be seen to curve into sinuses, below jaw line & even into orbits). This all results in an inability to chew properly → slobbers, and/or 2° abscesses
What are some things you can do to help treat elongated toothroots/ slobbers in chins?Removal of severely affected teeth & opposing teeth
Treat abscesses
Re-model malocclusions
Treat spurs
Long term pain management
Syringe feeding
Pulmonary trophoblastic emboli → explain when this usually happens & what happens?Usually you will suddenly find a dead chin during late gestation. What happened is that there will be an emboli in the pulmonary vessels (you might see resp. signs of distress) but then it dislodges, goes to the brain & the chin suddenly dies
Dermatologic problems are usually related to what?Dust bath issues
What are 3 reasons a chin might be chewing its fur?Thyroid dz
3 main czs of neuro problems in chins?Encephalitis, lead poisoning (they chew everything) & heatstroke
What virus are chins susceptible to?Human Herpes 1 (dont kiss your chin when you have a cold sore)
4 bacterial infxns listed that chins are susceptible to?Yersinia
Clostridium, etc
Which systemic fungal infxn are chins prone to?Histoplasmosis
What 2 protozoa can chins get?Giardia
Nematodes/cestodes chins can get? (4)Baylisacsaris
What ABx are contraindicated in chinchillas & what can you use instead?DONT USE Metronidazole, it can cz a toxicity. Use Albendazole or Fenbendazole instead