Exotics - Small Mammal 1

drraythe's version from 2016-02-10 01:31

Rodents in general

Question Answer
What kinda diets do rodents usually have?Maybe herbivorous or insectivorous
What time are rodents usually awake & what are their senses like?Mainly nocturnal, poor vision but great smell & hearing (three blind mice)
What does she mean by rodents are on the "fast track"?They develop fast, reproduce early & have a short lifespan
Largest rodent?Capybara
Why are rodents prone to heat stress?No sweat glands & cant pant
Is it normal for rodents to eat their feces?Yes, they are coprophagic (feces contain nutrients produced by colonic bacteria)

Rats & Mice

Question Answer
When an owner is bringing their pet in w/ the cage, what should you tell them?DONT clean the cage! You want to see what the normal environment is for the animal
What time of day is best for appointments for rats?Evening - rats are nocturnal
How difficult is it to collect a sample of urine/feces from a mouse or rat?Rodents urinate & defecate when handled – be prepared to collect samples on your hands
How might bloodwork differ btwn a small rodent & a larger rodent?Small: only PCV & smear. You can get a CBC & chem on a larger rodent, tho
Explain which gender is more aggressive (& the exception is?)Aggression is more common btwn males than females. The exception is female hamsters, of course
If you want to have mice or rats that all get along, what are the best 2 options?Either raise littermates together, or introduce at weaning
For any introduction, what do you wanna do w/ the environment?Introduce animals in clean cage (neutral territory) (or do “soft introduction”), also make sure there are hiding places & observe closely for the 1st few days
When medicating mice/rats what must you be very mindful of?Get an ACCURATE WEIGHT & be CAREFUL w/ calculations. Use a compounding pharmacy or dilute medication appropriately. Can be mixed w/ food or water if palatable.
What kinda instrument can you use to medicate rats/mice?TB or insulin syringes. If oral admin, can use a ball ended dosing needle
Which injxn routes are most preferred for mice/rats?IV injxns may be difficult, use intraperitoneal or subcutaneous routes instead
What should you think if you see a rat or mouse w/ orange teeth?Nothing-it’s normal
What is the growth of rat/mouse incisors like? Molars?The incisors are open rooted & grow continuously. The molars are fixed rooted
Which incisors are longer in the rat/mouse & what should you know about this?Lower incisors are longer than upper – DO NOT CLIP
What is a diastema & why do we like it?The gap btwn the incisors & molars-& it's great for getting medications in their mouth
What’s a Harderian Gland? Where is it/what does it do?This is a gland which is located behind the eye & it Produces porphyrin & lipid rich secretions (lubrication, pheromones).
If you see "red tears" or red nasal discharge, what is happening?This is the porphyrin & lipid rich secretions from the harderian gland, NOT BLOOD. The secretions can become excessive during stress or dz which is when you'd see them. You can make sure it's not blood bc porphyrin will fluoresce under UV (Wood's lamp)
Where are mammary tumors usually found?Can be found anywhere on the body in females OR males (the glands have wide distribution including the back)
If there is a SQ mass on a rat/mouse, it's probably?Mammary tumor until proven otherwise
How long should you fast a rat/mouse before anesthesia?TRICK QUESTION! YOU DO NOT FAST before anesthesia
Why do you not fast a mouse/rat before anesthesia?(1) They have a ridge btwn stomach & esophagus, so they do not vomit
(2) They have a high metabolic rate
How do you sex rats/mice?Sex by the anogenital distance - Male > Female. ((also male testicles can be manipulated into scrotum (open inguinal rings)-good for sexing also).
What’s interesting about rat/mice nipples?Males DONT HAVE NIPPLES
What’s a mouse/rats repro/cycle like?Polyestrous & spontaneous ovulators
What is the Whitten effect?Female mice housed in large groups may not cycle
What is the Bruce effect?Females may not implant if exposed to a strange male
4 signs of respiratory dz in rats or mice?Sniffling
Labored breathing
What are some normal geriatric signs in pet rats?Yellowing, dry scaly tail, brown secretions at base of hair
What kind of bedding should you never use?Aromatic bedding! Such as pine or cedar (VOCs aka volatile organic compounds)... Cedar shavings → affect microsomal liver enzymes (research), aromatic (hypersensitivity)
PE stuff → are there Vx for rats/mice? What should you always check? What Parameter should you always have?No Vx. Always check dentition (incisors grow continuously) & always get an accurate weight (always do full PE & make complete medical record)
How often should you change the water of rats/mice?DAILY. They pee/poop in it
What kinda bedding is recommended?Coconut husk shavings
Recycled paper
Aspen bedding
Anesthesia → what's up w/ intubation in rats/mice?Impractical bc they are so small. (There is a Technique using IV catheter silicone sleeve for trach tube in rats)...most of the time there is chamber induction followed by maintenance via face mask. (Injectable anesthetics can be used)
(Not sure how important) Explain doing an ovariohysterectomy in rats/micePosition w/ tape → ventral midline incision → Double ligate ovarian pedicles & uterine body w/ (4/0-5/0) absorbable → Close SQ w/ 5/0-7/0 absorbable → Close skin w/ subcuticular, tissue glue, staples (Remember, rodents chew! → So they might chew staples out) → Post-op analgesics
*What is important to keep in mind when doing a castration?Inguinal rings are OPEN
(Not sure how important) Explain doing a castration in a rat/mouseIncise scrotal skin over testicle (like a cat) → elevate testicle → Use closed technique (close tunic) → Close scrotum w/ tissue glue (Apply to apposed wound edges, Do not drop into wound then appose edges – foreign body rxn)
Who does barbering-rats or mice?MICE
*What is barbering? Who does this & why does it happen? How can you tell that it's barbering? How do you Tx it?This happens w/ groups of housed mice. Dominant mouse nibbles whiskers & fur of subordinate cage mates. You can tell its barbering bc the skin of the affected mice appears normal & only dominant mouse has all its fur. Tx: enrichment or removal of dominant mouse
MICE → 2 main czs of fight wounds?Incompatible males, introduction after weaning
What is the most common tumor in mice? What is Tx/prognosis?Adenocarcinoma. You can Sx excise, but there is a high recurrence rate & poor prognosis
*Explain the size/relative location of the maxillary & mandibular incisors(*Remember incisors grow continuously) The mandibular incisors are longer than the maxillary & the mandibular incisors are CAUDAL to the maxillary
(Czs?) CS of overgrown incisors? Tx?(If opposing tooth is missing, or there is improper alignment or improper diet, this can happen.) You will usually see hypersalivation, anorexia & weight loss. Tx: TRIM TEETH every 2-3mo.
What are some ways you can trim teeth in rats/mice?(Should be done every 2-3mo) Cut w/ bone/wire cutter, dremel or nail clippers (may fracture). Sedation & drill preferred to prevent splitting teeth.
What are the CS of fur mites?Thin, greasy haircoat, pruritus, SELF-INFLICTED TRAUMA (most of it isnt from the mites themselves). May be subclinical for weeks or months
Are fur mites burrowing or non-burrowing? How do you Tx them?They are non-burrowing so you can see the mites/nymphs/eggs w/ a magnifying glass. Tx w/ Ivermectin (PO, SQ, topical) & trim hind toenails to prevent self-mutilation
MICE → Mouse Hepatitis Virus. What kinda virus is this? Age affected? What are the CS? What’s the Tx?This is a Corona virus which affects neonates
You will see WASTING bc of severe enteritis → diarrhea, dehydration, jaundice. There will be no milk in the GI tract & the pups will be small. (Also the liver looks all messed up)
The only Tx is supportive until the dz runs its course
MICE → Rotavirus. Age this affects? CS? Tx/prognosis?Usually affects neonates. It's Rota, so of course enteritis (milder than mouse hepatitis tho) & you'll see diarrhea w/ soiling of hair coat. Tx is supportive, most of the time pups continue to nurse & usually survive
Sendai Virus → affects who? What kinda body system does this virus manifest in? What’s the DDX?Rats & mice, it's a resp. virus. DDX-mycoplasma
Sendai Virus → what are the CS? Prognosis? Tx?CS: mild resp distress. Adults will recover in 2mo, FATAL in neonates & weanlings
Tx is supportive & to control ammonia levels (keep clean cage) & give ABx (in case it is Mycoplasma & not Sendai)
Mycoplasma affects who? What kinda body system does it affect? How common is this dz?Rats & mice, it is a resp. dz (Mycoplasma pulmonis). MOST PET MICE ARE CARRIERS & they will develop clinical dz when stressed or ill.
Mycoplasma → CS? Tx?Dyspnea, pneumonia (may become chronic & abscesses may develop)
Otitis media
Tx: ABx (Tetracycline, Doxycycline + enrofloxacin) ← alleviate the CSs but doesnt elim infxn & then control ammonia levels
Mice & rats → Dermatophytosis. Which specific agents? CSs? Dx? Tx?Trichophyton mentagrophytes
Microsporum canis
CS: Crusty skin lesions
DX: Culture of hair sample
Tx:Miconazole topically/ Griseofulvin orally (in corn oil)
RATS: SKIN SWELLINGS. What are your R/Os if you have a rat w/ skin swellings?Fibroadeonoma, adenocarcinoma, abscess
What’s the most common tumor of RATS? (Where does it occur & is there a gender preference)Fibroadenoma, anywhere on the body & happens in males & females
What’s Tx like for fibroadenoma in RATS? Prognosis?Surgical excision, good prognosis (benign), recurrence common
RATS → Chronic Progressive Nephropathy. Age & gender specifics? CS & Tx?Advanced age >1yr. More severe in males.
CS: PU/PD, proteinuria, Hydrothorax & ascites in advanced stages
Tx is only supportive bc this is a fatal dz, but calorie & protein restriction limits severity
Sialodacryoadenitis Virus → who does this affect, what kinda virus is it & what parts of the body are affected?This is a viral dz of RATS, which is czd by a Corona virus *HIGHLY CONTAGEOUS*
Sialo = Salivary gland
Dacryo = Tears
Aden = Gland
Itis = Inflammation
Therefore, it's an inflammation of the salivary glands, cervical LNs & Harderian gland
Sialodacryoadenitis Virus → CSs & Tx/prog?CS: Red ocular & nasal discharge (hence the dacryo in the name)
Tx: No Tx, it is a self-limiting infxn of ~30 days, w/ high morbidity & low mortality.
RATS → resp. dz. what are the 4 most likely agents?Mycoplasma pulmonis
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Corynebacterium kutscheri
Cilia-associated Respiratory Bacillus (CAR).
RATS → CS of resp dz? (Resp & general)Respiratory-snuffling
Mucopurulent nasal discharge
General-weight loss
Hunched posture
Ruffled haircoat
Head tilt
Red ocular & nasal discharge

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