Exotics - Reptiles 5

drraythe's version from 2016-03-15 16:14

Reptile Therapeutics Continued

Question Answer
Who can you use Levamisole (anthelmintic) on?Most species
Metronidazole (anthelmintic) is good for treating what? & what other use might it have?Good antiprotozoal & appetite stimulant?
What should you know if you're going to give Fenbendazole to reptiles?Often used, but dose conservatively (Reports of radiomimetic effects to GI tract at 5x published dose (100 mg/kg)
Why would you want to administer Fipronyl? (Anthelmintic)Topical application miticide, Acaricide (ticks/mites)
HTRS: What's Rush's opinion on Anthelmintics/ Tx of mites?She likes to use olive oil on the animal & then treat the ENVIRO w/ Fipronyl
Analgesics → Butorphanol: why would you choose this over Buprenorphine?This is more appropriate bc Reptilian species may have more Kappa receptors (similar to birds) & Butorphanol is a kappa agonist, whereas Buprenorphine is a pure Mu agonist. Not to mention, Clinically Bup has czd prolonged recoveries in some gopher tortoises
What are the NSAIDs you can use in reptiles (which are particularly good in chelonia?)Carprofen, Meloxicam have been used w/o apparent ill effect in chelonia. There is also Ketoprofen available
If you are going to administer corticosteroids, what kinda time frame are you gonna wanna keep? What are the routes of admin & which is preferred? Why must you be careful if you are administering corticosteroids?Administer over 1st 24-48 hours (dont dose again unless you absolutely need to!), you can admin IV (preferred), IO, or IM. The reason we gotta be careful is that the immunosuppressive length & anti-inflammatory effects are UNKNOWN
What are the 2 types of corticosteroids you can give to reptiles?Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate (1-4 mg/kg)
Prednisolone Sodium Succinate (2 mg/kg)
Which anesthetics → Dissociatives can you give to reptiles?Ketamine, Tiletamine+Zolazepam
Which anesthetics → α-agonists can you give to reptiles?Medetomidine (REVERSIBLE! WOO! → Atipamezole is the agent to reverse it)
Can you use Propofol in reptiles?Yes, but be aware there can be Irritant/slough if extravasation
Which inhalant anesthetics can you use on reptiles?Isoflurane (most common) & sevoflurane (expensive but worth it)
Oh, there's a wound? #1 important thing for wound care?LAVAGE!!!! LAVAGE!!!!
What are the 3 types of lavages you can use in wound care?A balanced solution (saline-normal or half strength), antiseptics, or lavage w/ antimicrobials
What kinda antiseptic lavages are there? (3) Explain anything you should know about them(1) Chlorhexidine
(2) Betadine **long term can cz thyroid problems (goiter)
(3) Trifectant * must be no involvement of internal organs
If you are going to use a lavage w/ antimicrobials, what 2 things must you keep in mind?(1) Never use greater than single dose based on animal weight (never know how much a wound is going to absorb, so make sure you wont OD)
(2) Body perception as FB?
What 2 types of bandaging are preferred for reptiles & why is this? How often would you changing bandaging?Wet to dry & dry to wet are best. This is bc Caseated nature of reptilian inflammatory response usually makes these 2 types of bandages better for maintaining granulation tissue & debridement. Bandages may be changed from twice daily to every other day
Wound Care → ointments/topicals: which topical ointments should you avoid? (2)Avoid "caine" containing ointments (tox levels unknown). Also avoid steroids (long term effects unknown)
Wound Care → ointments/topicals: Silver sulfadiazine, Triple Ab, CHX (chlorohex), Betadine → what should you know about using these?Once the wound is free of bacteria, DISCONTINUE USE!!! Bc Most ABx slow growth of the granulation bed
Wound Care → ointments/topicals: what are 3 brands she likes? What is a natural product she likes?Caravet wound gel, Orabase gel, Neo-predef powder short term she also likes. She REALLY LIKES HONEY!!! Bc it works as a Antimicrobial & stimulates wound healing
Wound Care → ointments/topicals: Orabase gel → what is this good for?Can use for wound care & may be mixed w ABx
Fracture stabilization → chelonia: what are some materials to stabilize?You may or may not cover w/ a bandage (Tegaderm, vet wrap, duct tape), you might need to use wire/bone plate screws. You might also be able to use Bio-absorbable bone cement (calcified triglyceride product) or a fiberglass patch.
Fiberglass patches are especially useful in fracture stabilization for who? What must you make sure of?Best on testudo & box turtles, should be air penetrable to allow breathing of wound
Fracture stabilization → iguanids-how do you do this? & how long might it take to heal?Tape affected leg against body, may take 4-6 weeks to heal