Exotics- Reptiles- 4

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-09-08 16:51

Reptilian Diseases... CONTINUED

Question Answer
(not in notes but said in class) (related to how dz spreads) when tx a snake with OPMV, if there are other snakes in the clinic/home, what must you do?Recc neg airspace in quarantine room....air needs to be sucked out, because otherwise it just circulates around the house.
how do you treat OPMV?no tx...supportive care might extend a chronic poor doer's life but thats about it
what is IBD? who does it usually affect?Inclusion body disease, caused by an arenavirus (was thought to be retrovirus, notes say this, in class she said arena and emphasized) this virus usually affects BOID snakes (can affect other spp tho)
what are the main signs caused by IBD, and which snakes are more prone (more specific than boids)usually cause neurological signs... boas can be carriers, it is usually FATAL in pythons
how do you dx IBD? How do you tx? how might you prevent this?dx is usually at necropsy. ICIB/histopath/bx of GI tissue/liver. no drug is 100% effective, although doxy might help. THERE iS NO TREATMENT THOUGH!!!! to try to prevent, use quarentine methods, use proper husbandry, and DONT HAVE MIXED SPECIES HABITATS!!
prey bites: what should you know about this?FEED DEAD PREY! If they dont eat dead, feed live, THEN stunned, THEN dead. If the reptile doesn't seize prey in 10-15min, they prolly dont want to eat that day-- REMOVE PREY! The inappatence might be from husbandry issues! the rodent that bites might just be hungry, or perhaps it is defense biting
how would you care for a pre-bite wound on a snake?Flush copiously and debride (you will need appropriate sedation and analgesia). utilize bandaging, enclosure towels, and antiseptics (change every other day and daily, respectively.) BITES MAY RESULT IN PERMANANT SCARRING and change in scale pattern. The healing time will be similar to burns
infectious stomatitis--> affects who? what usually accompanies this? what makes it more complicated?under SNAKE DZs, but also affects lizards, crocs, and turtles. infected mouth means prolly anorexia, which complicates things by further debilitating the pt. It is often accompanied by pneumonia and dermatitis.
what are the clinical signs of infectious stomatitis?Anorexia (tongue paralysis), weight loss, regurg, salivation, loose teeth, ocular infections, and pneumonia
how would you treat a MILD infectious stomatitis? (incld meds)provide proper environment, flush with trifectant or nolvasan+H2O2, and use topical abx preparations
is there absecessation in what is considered a moderate infectious stomatitis? how would you treat a moderate case?no abscessation. The treatment is the same as the mild treatment, but with added systemic parenteral abx. (provide proper environment, flush with trifectant or nolvasan+H2O2, and use topical abx preparations)
what is the defining factor which makes an infectious stomatitis a severe case? how would you treat a severe case?there will be caseated abscessation in a severe case. you will need to do debridement and flushing, and local installation of abx
what are some things a lizard's tail is used for?social signaling, counterbalance, climbing, swimming, defense.
which lizards DONT have tail autonomy?chameleons and monitors
what proliferative bony dz in lizards can cause tail paralysis?paget's dz
HTRS: what is a disinfectant that you usually want to avoid in reptiles, and why?betadine, because it can cause goiters
HTRS: if you have a lizard's tail which is necrosing at the end, how would you remove it?YOU SNAP IT OVER THE TABLE! cutting with a scalpel will make it bleed. However, most lizards have tail autonomy and they are DESIGNED to snap off with minimal bleeding.
what big dz must you look out for with crocodillians?WNV! not only is it zoonotic, but it leaves pox marks on the hide and ruins it
HTRS: how many chambers does a reptilian heart have?EVERYONE HAS 3-- except crocodilians, they have 4.
snake dz--> infectious stomatits: what are the clinical signs, and how do you dx?CS: anorexia, tongue paralysis, weight loss, regurg, salivation..diag: culture, aerobic/anaerobic, SQ injection and aspiration (also cytology, biopsy, and histopath)

Reptilian Theraputics

Question Answer
Why are reptilians More quickly dehydrated and hypothermic?First off, theyre ectotherms, second off, they have Higher body surface/to body mass ratio
Why might it actually be MORE important to hospitalize a debilitated reptile rather than a mammal?Reptiles don’t heal without thermal & fluid supportive care
how do you assess hydration on a reptile?skin turgor, eyes sunken, tacky m.m., and the blood work PCV, total protein, uric acid. Also be sure to measure body weight!
when calculating fluid deficit and maintenance, what is the MAXIMUM?maximum 2-5% body weight
what are the fluid types you could give to a reptile, and what should you be careful about?LRS, Saline, Normosol, Dextrose. HOWEVER, No greater than 2.5% dextrose to give SQ, avoid if possible
what are the routes of administration for fluids for a reptile? which is the preferred route?PO, SQ, IV, ICe*, IO.... Intracelomic is most often the preferred method
in terms of fluid therapy, a sick reptile has a high _________ loadlactate
Reptiles utilize anaerobic metabolism after activity, and a buildup of lactic acid can result in acidema. What is crucial for a reptile to bring its lactate levels back down?TEMPERATURE!! lactate removal is temperature dependent
What is the reptile fluid maintenance rate???10-20 ml/kg/day
what is the equipment/technique necessary for oral administration of fluids for a reptile? what benefit does oral fluids have?speculum/mouth-gag, tubes- stainless feeding tubes, red-rubber... lubricant is useful to prevent aspiration. Why oral route? --> may reduce other necessary fluid therapy
HTRS: (compounding medication) what can you do if you have a heavy-particled medication which you want to stay in suspension for administration orally at the proper dose?heavy drugs can be diluted in sterile water, and then put some KYjelly in there, so itll stay in suspension!!! USEFUL!
which reptiles can you give fluid in the Intracoelomic route? How much can you give in this area? How can you Avoid lungs/internal organs while doing this?You can use this route in ALL reptiles, and you can give large amounts of fluids this way. You can Avoid lungs/internal organs by tilting patient away from injection side and direct injection ventrally.
When giving fluids intracelomically, how can you be sure you're in the cavity and not somewhere else?After sterile prep aspirate and upon negative pressure inject slowly
How common is SQ admin of fluid in reptiles? Where do you administer in chelonians? what should you note about iguanas?This route is NOT OFTEN used, because there is slow absorption, limited space, non-elastic skin, variable blood flow. In chelonians you can inject in the ventral neck or in the bridge tissue (bottom edge of shell) sure to tell owners of chameleons that their skin will turn black at the injection site
How do you perform IV admin of fluid in a reptile? Any species differences?You need a CUT DOWN through the scales/skin to access the vessel you want to use. Which vessel depends on the species. The JUGULAR is used in Snakes & chelonians (who have a short jugular) and also some lizards. The cephalic vein, on the other hand, is used in most lizards and iguanids
what are the advantages and limits to an intraosseus administration of fluids? Which species can you use this in, and where? ADVANTAGES: A bone is rigid and stable area you can use when all of the peripheral vessels are collapsing on you. LIMITS: there is a limited volume of administration. The species this is best used in is lizards/crocodilians and chelonia. For lizards/crocodilians, you can use the proximal tibia, the distal femur, and the humerus. In chelonia, you can use the SHELL/BRIDGE (remember the shell is bone!!)
If you need to access vessels in a snake, what is your option(s)?YOU NEED TO USE THE JUGULAR! Technically there is the tail vein, but that's a one-time deal to get blood and it's basically impossible to thread something into the tail vein
how would you access the JUGULAR in a SNAKE?you will be doing a cut-down procedure, so you will need analgesia and anesthesia! You will find the heart (you should be able to feel/see it) and move approx. 9 scales cranial to heart. The catheter size is 22-25ga.
Nutritional support in reptiles--> Enterals ( is feeding or drug administration by the digestion process of a gastrointestinal (GI) ) what do you want to avoid? what is a good general food?you want a LOW PURINE DIET, because Purines add to uric acid avoid the A/D food. However, Eukanuba maximum calorie is a great diet she said. Low protein diets!
Nutritional support---> what are some things you can feed CARNIVORES? (snakes, monitors)Eukanuba maximum calorie, Oxbow carnivore care
Nutritional support---> what are some things you can feed HERBIVORES? (tortoises)Oxbow Herbivore critical care
Nutritional support---> what are some things you can feed INSECTIVORES and OMNIVORES? (Bearded Dragons, Box turtles, water turtles)Meat/veggie baby food, or Walkabout farms
What is something you MUST be careful about if you are providing nutritional support to an anorexic patient?“Re-feeding syndrome”
“Re-feeding syndrome”--> explain what happens with this, and how you can try to prevent thisin critically starved patients, the animal has low total phosphorus and potassium. THEN, when enterals are provided, electrolytes move with glucose into cells- resulting hypokalemia. PREVENTION: offer 50% calories over 24 hours, repeat daily until improved. *be sure to monitor blood values
Nutritional support---> what is gavage? Who do we like to use this in, and who is this difficult in?Gavage= supplying a nutritional substance by means of a small plastic tube passed through the nose or mouth into the stomach. You can use this method in assisting feeding of snakes... their teeth will help guide whole prey food in once introduced. In chelonia though, gavage is difficult at best, there is usually Pharyngostomy tube placement (tube through neck)
Nutritional support--> Pharyngostomy tube placement in chelonians--> how do you do this?ANESTHATIZE ANIMAL, Measure tube to pectoral scute, Approach on right side-> insert hemostats into oral cavity caudal to angle of the jaw-> skin incision made (avoid jugular)->grasp tube and pull through oral cavity->re-direct down esophagus-> secure.....then you can administer your Fluids, medications, and nutrition
what's Rush's favorite choice in anesthetic for putting down a chelonian for a pharyngostomy tube placement?ketamine and medetomidine (reversible, good relaxation).... other choices are (1) ketamine 20-40 mg/kg and Butorphanol 0.2 mg/kg and lidocaine (2) telazol 10 mg/kg , Butorphanol, lidocaine
with a pharyngostomy tube placement, if you aren't sure you got your placement right, what can you do? What do you do if it's plugged? What is a risk of having a in, and what can you do to prevent this problem?If in doubt, RAdiOGRAPHS!!! If the tube plugs, you can use meat tenderizer (Adolphs), or coca-cola!! Having the tube in leads to a risk of Candidal /fungal colonization... you can flush tube with Nystatin or nolvasan to help prevent this
If you're going to IM inject drugs, where must you do this? (in general)In the Cranial ½ of body....because they have a renal portal system!!
Where would you IM inject a snake?Epaxial muscles parallel to spine
where would you IM inject a lizard? Epaxial muscles parallel to spine plus limb muscles
where would you IM inject a chelonian?limb mms
where would you IM inject a crocodilian? (what is a limitation in crocs with IM injections in come areas?)Limb muscles,Tail based muscles (certain medications only). In crocs, Osteoderms of dorsal body wall limit use of epaxial muscles
why might reptiles have some more problems with lungs, and what might you be able to NEBULIZE to help with various lung problems?Reptiles lack diaphragm, and are More prone to accumulation of debris, retained bacteria in lungs & airsacs (they cant cough AND they can only form caseated inflammation). Agents you can nebulize for a reptile are abx, saline, Terbutaline (respiratory distress), Acetylcysteine (break down of caseated discharge)
If you are going to use abx, you need it to be a RATiONAL REASONING-- need defensible reasoning. how can you make it a defensible reason?(1) culture-- Anaerobic & aerobic indicated (> 50% of reptiles anaerobic infections) (2) cytology
in general, with drugs, how well do reptiles metabolize them, and how do you handle them because of this?Reptile metabolism is slow, drug hang around awhile...because of this, do a Conservative dose on toxic drugs
WHICH ANTHELMENTIC IS TOXIC IN SOME CHELONIAS? (which?)Ivermectin appears toxic to some chelonia (ESP BOX TuRTLES-- might be safe in some tetsudo sp
HTRS: if you see protozoa in the feces of a reptile, what are you thinking?Protozoa are part of their normal flora, so don't be concerned unless they are OVERRUN with it
5 anthelmentics you can use on reptiles (separate info on diff cards)ivermectin, levamisole, metronidazole, fenbendazole, fipronyl

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