Exotics - Reptiles 3

pbhati17's version from 2017-02-08 20:59

Reptilian Dzs...CONTINUED

Question Answer
How would you go about an amputation of a prolapsed oviduct/shell gland?*Amputation is last resort! The suspensory structures will be affected, so you must do a celeotomy & remove the affected side
If there has been an organ prolapse & you wish to replace tissue into the cloaca, what could you do?Could do a purse string or transverse cloacal suture. For colon specifically, you could do a colopexy
HTRS: If sexual organs keep prolapsing, what should you do?"Ya gotta keep em separated! dun, dundun dun..." (Separate boys & girls)
What is dysecdysis? What is usually the cz of this?It is abnormal shedding & retained eye caps....& it is A SYMPTOM NOT A DZ!!!!! Usually due to poor husbandry/management
Describe how snakes, lizards & chelonians usually moltSnakes-all in 1 piece. Lizards-in little pieces. Turtles-slough scutes in patches
Shedding is dependent on what 2 big factors? How often would a young, healthy snake shed?Depends on NUTRITIONAL STATE & AGE.
What would a snake look like if it was 7-14 days prior to shedding? What would it look like 3-7 days prior to shedding?7-14 days: dull skin, eyes turn whitish blue (owner might say blue or opaque), food refusal, handling during this time may damage new skin, also snake might strike w/ little provocation (their eyesight is poor during this time & they are more likely to be predated). 3-7days prior to shedding: skin shiny eyes clear
HTRS: Why don't you see a gecko shed ever?They eat the shed
What might be some reasons there would be dysecdysis?↓ temp
↓ humidity
Improper nutrition
Insufficient cage furniture
(Also fungal/bacterial skin dzs, septicemia, parasites such as microfilaria & mites, thermal burns, scars & thyroid dysfxn)
What are some Txs for dysecdysis?Soaking in water, hydration chamber...she has "dilute antibacterial?" & remove patches of retained skin, also. REMEMBER, DON'T JUST TREAT, TRY TO FIND THE UNDERLYING DZ
NMBD → who usually gets nutritional 2° hyperparathyroidism? Versus, who usually gets renal 2° hyperparathyroidism?Nutritional is usually a young, growing animal. Renal is usually in an adult animal.
What would be some reasons for the dietary deficiency in nutritional 2° hyperparathyroidism?Lack of Ca, Vitamin D, or a negative Ca:P, or a lack of appropriate exposure to UV (B) light. (Being a young growing animal contributes greatly)
Who is more likely to get NMBD? Who isnt?Snakes arent likely to get it bc they get fed a whole-prey diet. Lizards, amphibians, chelonia & crocodilians are much more likely to. (She mentioned in class that green iguanas & bearded dragons are especially susceptible)
Which 2 specific animals are most likely to get NMBD?Green iguanas & bearded dragons
What are the 3 major problems that come w/ NMBD & what are the symptoms related to each one? (I think this is most specific for green iguanas & bearded dragons, bc she goes into other species later)(1) Fibrous Osteodystrophy: you'll see fractures, "Popeye iguanas", lack of truncal lifting, rubber jaw, kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis & possible rear limb paralysis from a broken spine
(2) Hypocalcemia: paresis, mm tremors, seizures
(3) Renal failure: Failure to defecate, Enlarged kidneys, Kidneys painful on palpation
What do CS of NMBD look like in chelonia? How susceptible are chelonia to NMBD?Overgrowth of the beak & nails


Small size for age
Curling shell
Shell which deviated ventrally or appears too small for the turtle
Luckily, once grown, chelonia are pretty resistant to NMBD (however young ones are at risk)
Question Answer
What do CS of NMBD look like in crocodilians?Jaw
Leg deformities
Teeth will grow at abnormal & oblique angles
They might also get rubber jaw (similar signs to lizards)
What are 2 tests you'd want to perform to diagnose NMBD? (Explain a little about what you are looking for w/ the tests)(1) Radiographs: look for fractures, lack of bone density & enlarged kidneys
(2) Chem panel: look for ↓ Ca+, ↑ P & elevated uric acid
HTRS: Explain how nutritional 2° hyperparathyroidism worksThe parathyroid is secreting PTH bc there is hypocalcemia
The hypocalcemia might be due to a lack of Ca++ in diet, or a lack of vit. D leading to the malabsorption of Ca++
What are the 2 things you'd want to do to treat NMBD (the underlying cz, not the symptoms) & explain why (esp. the dietary stuff)(1) Appropriate UV (B) source (to allow cutaneous photolysis to get the vit D to absorb the Ca)
(2) BALANCE THE DIET! If they are herbivores, add a Ca++ supplement. You can also add phosphate binders to lower the P levels (such as CaCO3, i.e. TUMS), you can feed gut-loaded insects, give fluids & give Ca supplementation
What are 2 ways you can supplement Calcium?(1) Oral-neocalglucon
(2) Injectable-rarely indicated (dangerous-inject while listening to heart!), check Ca levels prior to supplementation!!!
What are some reasons a reptile might get pneumonia? How worried about it should you be?Usually a husbandry, sanitation, or nutrition problem. This condition can be life threatening if not aggressively managed!
What are some general CS you'd see w/ pneumonia?(1) Dyspnea-expiratory & inspiratory
(2) Open mouth breathing/ exaggerated resp. movements, elevated resp. rate
(3) Nasal discharge
What does a lizard/snake look like in resp. distress? What about chelonians?(1) Lizard/snake: Extend the neck, hold the head up, breathe w/ an open mouth
(2) Chelonians: Head & neck distension, oblivious to surroundings, aquatic spp will spend less time in the water
How would you ascult a reptile for pneumonia?Moistened gauze over stethoscope diaphragm (otherwise you just hear scratching of scales)
You'll see asymmetrical swimming in aquatic turtles
Radiography for Dx of pneumonia → how important is this? What views would you want to take? What would it look like if there was indeed pneumonia?REQD for dx of pneumonia in a reptile. You usually need 2 views (horizontal beam) but for chelonians you need 3 VIEWS (bc you can't flip them over!!) so you need a DV, a lat & an AP (head to ass basically).
HTRS: Protips for radiographing cheloniansPut them on a bucket so they can't walk away. The AP view, which is head-to-ass, is used to avoid flipping them over & crushing their lungs. You can also use a mammogram machine on chelonians so you don't have to flip them!!!
What are 5 different things that are the Ddx as czs of the pneumonia?(1) Bacterial-usually G-, or mycoplasma
(2) Viral-snakes are usually Paramyxovirus, it could be Adenovirus, Herpesvirus, or inclusion body dZ
(3) Fungal - Uncommon in captive reptiles tho
(4) Parasitic-Rhabdias spp, pentastomids, trematodes
(5) NONINFECTIOUS czs - Aspiration/inhalation pneumonia or a space occupying dz
How long is Tx for pneumonia? What is the prognosis? How would you administer drugs for this?Tx may be prolonged w/ a guarded prognosis being warranted. You can administer drugs intrapneumonically, keep in mind recurrence is possible
What are some of the Txs for pneumonia?Fluids
Systemic ABx
Tube feeding
O2 therapy
Acetylcysteine (a mucolytic agent)
Hypovitaminosis A usually affects who?Under "chelonian dzs", this usually affects chelonia
Chameleons & Nile crocodiles. It also especially affects box turtles & aquatic turtles. Tortoises, however are NOT usually affected!
How does Hypovitaminosis affect certain cells & what are the results of this?It leads to multifocal SQUAMOUS hyperplasia...this leads to hyperkeratosis of the epithelium, which means the resp, ocular, GI, endocrine & genitourinary systems are all affected
What happens to the ducts of the pancreas, kidney & oculonasal glands in Hypovitaminosis A?Hypo-A results in hyperkeratosis, which leads to lots of desquamated cells. These cells occlude the ducts, leading them to be susceptible to 2° bacterial infxns. ALSO, the tear secreting ophthalmic glands now have nowhere to drain, so they expand outward, the eyelids swell shut, there is conjunctival eversion & BLEPHAROEDEMA!!!! (can be unilateral or bilateral, there might be caseated debris)


Question Answer
If I say blepharoedema, what dz are you thinking of?Hypovitaminosis A!!!! (NAVLE LOVES THIS, see other card for how this happens)
How does Hypovitaminosis affect the overall behavior/vitality of the animal? How does it affect their skin?They will appear lethargic, anorexic, they will lose weight & there may be nasal/ocular discharge. Their integument will appear thickened & cracked & there will be abnormal keratin growth btwn scutes
Why might you see inguinal & axillary edema in Hypovitaminosis A?Bc of the kidney failure czd by hypo-A (bc the hyperplasia of squamous cells lining the kidney tubules can cz kidney failure)
What are 5 things you can do for Tx for Hypovitaminosis A?(1) Injectable Vitamin A
(2) Fluids, tube or force feeding if
(3) Treat pneumonia if present
(4) Ophthalmic ointments (NO STEROIDS
What are the dietary changes you'd want to make to help treat Hypovitaminosis A?Spinach
Turnip & mustard greens
Bok choy
Steamed winter squash
Sweet potatoes
The livers of mice & fish
An oral vit A supplement
Purina trout chow!
Chelonian dzs → shell erosions/abscesses/SCUD (septicemic cutaneous ulcerative dz) usually happens in who & how?AQUATIC turtles. Usually due to poor water quality, rough substrates,↓temp, poor nutrition, crowding, lack of basking site, lack of dry dock, insufficient UV light
When lavageing a shell fracture, what must you be careful of?DONT LAVAGE LUNGS → PNEUMONIA
Do you want to close the shell fracture right away? Explain how to close shell fractures/stabilize themDO NOT CLOSE ALL THE WAY! (Infxn will have nowhere to go but INTO the animal → bad news) you can use wire or bone screws & cerclage for unstable can also MOSTLY (not all the way) close w/ fiberglass & 5 minute epoxy. There is also a Calcium triglyceride bioabsorbable bone cement... you can use adherent bandageing & topical ABx creams, & honey to help in healing
What does a shell infxn/abscesses look like?You will see defects & discolorations of the scutes, pale or bloody loose scutes.
Chelonian dz → how would you treat a shell infxn? (How long do you Tx?)DRY DOCK!!! (except for?) 1 hour daily for hydration & feeding. Debride shell-if the shell is dry, you can give topical ABx/disinfectants. For moist wounds, do culture & sensitivity tests. Debridement topical & systemic ABx, treat for 3-6wk. Once the shell is healed, it will be dry, smooth & free of odor & discharge. Deep irregular scars may remain, but there are not necessary to repair
Chelonian dz → what is SCUD? Who does this affect? What does this look like & how do you treat it?septicemic cutaneous ulcerative dz. This is SUPER BAD!!! Usually affects soft-shelled turtles. You will see cutaneous ulceration, anorexia, lethargy, septicemia, death. Tx w/ ABx based on culture & TREAT AGGRESSIVELY!!!!
Chelonian dz → who are aural abscesses common in? What are some predisposing czs to this?Most common in box turtles, but can happen in lizards pretty often too. Predisposing czs can be chronic suboptimal temperatures, improper husbandry (dirty water source), inadequate nutrition (Hypovitaminosis A) & bacteria (aerobic G-s & anaerobes) (theory about organophosphates might cz this too)
Chelonian dz → what are the CS of aural abscesses?The tympanum will be laterally swollen & pale in color (unilateral or bilateral) & you might see a caseated plug, or a fibrous connective tissue capsule (this is very vascular, so systemic ABx might not help)
How do you treat aural abscesses?You can do surgical removal & lavage, leave an open flap on the 1/3 opening for drainage, topical or systemic ABx can then be used... most importantly, CORRECT HUSBANDRY!
What is OPMV? Who does it affect?Ophidian Paramyxovirus. It affects ALL major snake families (prefers Vipirids)
*What are the CS of OPMV? (Ophidian Paramyxovirus)Variable-depends on form
(1) Acute/peracute: anorexia, regurg., acute death. resp. compromise, neuro signs (miss prey, rolling over weird), including stargazing
(2) Chronic poor doer: general debilitation, anorexia, regurg...supportive Tx will ↑ lifespan
(3) Clinically healthy: persistent viremia for 10mo & then becomes a chronic poor doer
If you think it is OPMV, what must you rule out?Reovirus
How do you diagnose OPMV (ophidian Paramyxovirus)There will be a rising titer prior to clinical illness → even healthy uninfected can have titer. Some animals carry titer that is an exposure titer. They were exposed & immune responded & protective titer, we dont know if they will break for dz. What do you do in these cases? Tricky. Tell owner if its a protective titer or if they will break w/ dz. You can do post mortem histology on the lung, liver, kidney & splenopancreas. Also can do PCR (to UF pot says, not sure what UF is)

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