Exotics- Reptiles- 3

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-09-08 16:51

Reptilian Diseases...CONTINUED

Question Answer
how would you go about an amputation of a prolapsed oviduct/shellgland?*amputation is last resort! the suspensory structures will be affected, so you must do a celeotomy and remove the affected side
if there has been an organ prolapse and you wish to replace tissue into the cloaca, what could you do?could do a purse string or transverse cloacal suture..for colon specifically, you could do a colopexy
HTRS: if sexual organs keep prolapsing, what should you do?"Ya gotta keep em separated! dun, dundun dun..." (separate boys and girls)
what is dysecdysis? what is usually the cause of this?it is abnormal shedding and retained eye caps....and it is A SYMPTOM NOT A DISEASE!!!!! Usually due to poor husbandry/management
describe how snakes, lizards, and chelonians usually moltsnakes- all in one piece. lizards- in little pieces. turtles-slough scutes in patches
shedding is dependent on what two big factors? how often would a young, healthy snake shed?depends on NUTRITIONAL STATE and AGE.
what would a snake look like if it was 7-14 days prior to shedding? what would it look like 3-7 days prior to shedding?7-14 days: dull skin, eyes turn whiteish blue (owner might say blue or opaque), food refusal, handling during this time may damage new skin, also snake might strike with little provocation (their eyesight is poor during this time and they are more likely to be predated). 3-7days prior to shedding: skin shiney eyes clear
HTRS: why don't you see a gecko shed ever?they eat the shed
what might be some reasons there would be dysecdysis?low temp, low humidity, improper nutrition, insufficient cage furniture. (also fungal/bacteral skin dzs, septicemia, parasites such as microfilaria and mites, thermal burns, scars, and thyroid dysfunction)
what are some treatments for dysecdysis?soaking in water, hydration chamber...she has "dilute antibacterials?" and remove patches of retained skin, also. REMEMBER, DON'T JUST TREAT, TRY TO FIND THE UNDERLYING DZ
NMBD--> who usually gets nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism? versus, who usually gets renal secondary hyperparathyroidism?nutritonal is usually a young, growing animal. Renal is usually in an adult animal.
what would be some reasons for the dietary deficiency in nutritonal secondary hyperparathyroidism?Lack of Ca, Vitamin D, or a negative Ca:P, or a lack of appropriate exposure to UV(B) light. (being a young growing animal contributes greatly)
who is more likely to get NMBD? who isnt?snakes arent likely to get it because they get fed a whole-prey diet. Lizards, amphibians, chelonia, and crocodillians are much more likely to. (she mentioned in class that green iguanas and bearded dragons are especially susceptible)
which two specific animals are most likely to get NMBD?green iguanas and bearded dragons
what are the three major problems that come with NMBD, and what are the symptoms related to each one? (i think this is most specific for green iguanas and bearded dragons, because she goes into other species later)(1) fibrous osetodystrophy: you'll see fractures, "popeye iguanas", lack of trunkal lifting, rubber jaw, kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis, and possible rear limb paralysis from a broken spine. (2) Hypocalcemia: paresis, mm tremors, seizures (3) renal failute: failure to defecate, enlarged kidneys, kidneys painful on palpation(?)
what do clinical signs of NMBD look like in chelonia? how suseptible are chelonia to NMBD?overgrowth of the beak and nails, small size for age, soft, curling shell, shell which deviated ventrally or appears too small for the turtle. Luckily, once grown, chelonia are pretty resistant to NMBD (however young ones are at risk)
what do clinical signs of NMBD look like in crocodilians?jaw, spine, or leg deformities, teeth will grow at abnormal and oblique angles. they might also get rubber jaw (similar signs to lizards)
what are two tests you'd want to perform to diagnose NMBD? (explain a little about what you are looking for with the tests)(1) radiographs: look for fractures, lack of bone density, and enlarged kidneys (2) Chem panel: look for low Ca+, high P, and elevated uric acid
HTRS: explain how nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism worksthe parathyroid is secreting PTH because there is hypocalcemia. the hypocalcemia might be due to a lack of Ca++ in diet, or a lack of vit. D leading to the malabsorption of Ca++
what are the two things you'd want to do to treat NMBD (the underlying cause, not the symptoms) and explain why (esp the dietary stuff)(1) appropriate UV(B) source (to allow cutenous photolysis to get the vit D to absorb the Ca) (2) BALANCE THE DIET! If they are herbivores, add a Ca++ supplement. You can also add phosphate binders to lower the P levels (such as CaCO3, ie TUMS), you can feed gut-loaded insects, give fluids, and give Ca supplimentation
what are two ways you can suppliment calcium?(1) oral- neocalglucon. (2) injectable- rarely indicated (dangerous--inject while listening to heart!), check Ca levels prior to supplementation!!!
What are some reasons a reptile might get pneumonia? How worried about it should you be?usually a husbandry, sanitation, or nutrition problem. This condition can be life threatening if not aggressively managed!
what are some general clinical signs you'd see with pneumonia?(1) dyspnea- expiratory and inspiratory (2) open mouth breathing/ exaggerated resp. movements, elevated resp. rate (3) nasal discharge
what does a lizard/snake look like in resp. distress? what about chelonians?Lizard/snake: extend the neck, hold the head up, breathe with an open mouth (2) chelonians: head and neck distension, oblivious to surroundings, aquatice spp will spend less time in the water
how would you ascult a reptile for pneumonia?moistened gauze over stethoscope diaphragm (otherwise you just hear scratching of scales), percussion, you'll see asymmetrical swimming in aquatic turtles
Radiography for diagnosis of pneumonia--> how important is this? what views would you want to take? what would it look like if there was indeed pneumonia?REQUIRED for dx of pneumonia in a reptile. You usually need two views (horizontal beam) but for chelonians you need THREE VIEWS (because you can't flip them over!!) so you need a DV, a lat, and an AP (head to ass basically).
HTRS: protips for radiographing cheloniansput them on a bucket so they can't walk away. The AP view, which is head-to-ass, is used to avoid flipping them over and crushing their lungs. You can also use a mammogram machine on chelonians so you don't have to flip them!!!
what are 5 different things that are the differentials as causes of the pneumonia?(1) bacterial- usually G-, or mycoplasma (2) viral- snakes are usually paramyxovirus, it could be adenovirus, herpesvirus, or inclusion body disease (3) fungal- uncommon in captive reptiles tho (4) parasitic- rhabdias spp, pentastomids, trematodes (5) NONINFECTIOUS causes- aspiration/inhalation pneumonia, or a space occupying dz
how long is treatment for pneumonia? what is the prognosis? how would you administer drugs for this?treatment may be prolonged with a guarded prognosis being warrented. you can administer drugs intrapneumonically, keep in mind recurrence is possible
what are some of the treatments for pneumonia?fluids, heat, systemic abx, nebulization, tube feeding, O2 therapy, acetylcysteine (a mucolytic agent)
Hypovitaminosis A usually affects who?Under "chelonian diseases", this usually affects chelonia, iguanas, chamelelons, and nile crocodiles. It also especially affects box turtles and aquatic turtles. Tortoises, however, are NOT usually affected!
how does hypovitaminosis affect certain cells, and what are the results of this?it leads to multifocal SQUAMOUS hyperplasia...this leads to hyperkeratosis of the epithelium, which means the resp, ocular, GI, endocrine, and genitourinary systems are all affected
what happens to the ducts of the pancreas, kidney, and oculonasal glands in hypovitaminosis A?Hypo-A results in hyperkeratosis, which leads to lots of desqumated cells. these cells occlude the ducts, leading them to be suseptible to secondary bacterial infections. ALSO, The tear secreting opthalmic glands now have nowhere to drain, so they expand outward, the eyelids swell shut, there is conjunctival eversion, and BLEPHAROEDEMA!!!! (can be unilateral or bilateral, there might be caseated debris)
if I say blepharoedema, what dz are you thinking of?hypovitaminosis A!!!! (NAVLE LOVES THIS, see other card for how this happens)
how does hypovitaminosis affect the overall beahvior/vitality of the animal? How does it affect their skin?they will appear lethargic, anorexic, they will lose weight, and there may be nasal/ocular discharge. Their integument will appear thickened and cracked, and there will be abnormal keratin growth between scutes
why might you see inguinal and axillary edema in hypovitaminosis A?because of the kidney failure caused by hypo-A (because the hyperplasia of squamous cells lining the kidney tubules can cause kidney failure)
what are 5 things you can do for treatment for hypovitaminosis A?(1) injectable vitamin A (2) fluids, tube or force feeding if anorexic (3) treat pneumonia if present (4) opthalmic ointments (NO STEROIDS!) (5) DIETARY CHANGES!!!
what are the dietary changes you'd want to make to help treat hypovitaminosis A?spinach, dandilions, turnip and mustard greens, bok choy, broccoli, steamed winter squash, carrots, sweet potatoes, cantaloupe, apricots, the livers of mice and fish, a oral vit A suppliment, or purina trout chow!
chelonian dzs--> shell erosions/abscesses/SCUD (septicemic cutaneous ulcerative dz) usually happens in who, and how?AQUATIC turtles. usually due to poor water quality, rough substrates, low temp, poor nutrition, crowding, lack of basking site, lack of dry dock, insufficient UV light
when lavageing a shell fracture, what must you be careful of?DONT LAVAGE LUNGS--> PNEUMONIA
do you want to close the shell fracture right away? explain how to close shell fractures/stabilize themDO NOT CLOSE ALL THE WAY! (infection will have nowhere to go but INTO the animal--> bad news) you can use wire or bone screws and cerclage for unstable can also MOSTLY (not all the way) close with fiberglass and 5 minute epoxy. there is also a calcium triglyceride bioabsorbable bone cement.. you can use adherent bandageing and topical abx creams,and honey to help in healing
what does a shell infection/absesses look like?you will see defects and discolorations of the scutes, pale or bloody loose scutes.
chelonian dz--> how would you treat a shell infection? (how long do you tx?)DRY DOCK!!! (except for?) 1 hour daily for hydration and feeding. Debride shell- if the shell is dry, you can give topical abx/disinfectants. for moist wounds, do culture and sensitivity tests. Debridement topical and systemic abx, treat for 3-6wk. Once the shell is healed, it will be dry, smooth, and free of odor and discharge. deep irregular scars may remain, but there are not necessary to repair
chelonian dz--> what is SCUD? who does this affect? what does this look like and how do you treat it?septicemic cutaneous ulcerative dz.This is SUPER BAD!!! Usually affects soft-shelled turtles. you will see cutaneous ulceration, anorexia, lethargy, septicemia, death. Tx with abx based on culture, and TREAT AGGRESSIVELY!!!!
chelonian dz--> who are aural abscesses common in? what are some predisposing causes to this?most common in box turtles, but can happen in lizards pretty often too. predisposing causes can be chronic suboptimal temperatures, improper husbandry (dirty water source), inadequate nutrition (hypovitaminosis A), and bacteria (aerobic G-s and anaerobes) (theory about organophosphates might cause this too)
chelonian dz--> what are the clinical signs of aural abscesses?the tympanum will be laterally swollen and pale in color (unilateral or bilateral), and you might see a caseated plug, or a fibrous connective tissue capsule (this is very vasacular, so systemic abx might not help)
how do you treat aural abscesses?you can do surgical removal and lavage, leave an open flap on the 1/3 opening for drainage, topical or systemic abx can then be used... most importantly, CORRECT HUSBANDRY!
what is OPMV? who does it affect?ophidian paramyxovirus. it affects ALL major snake families (prefers vipirids)
*what are the clinical signs of OPMV? (ophidian paramyxovirus)variable-- depends on form. (1) acute/peracute: anorexia, regurg., acute death. resp. compromise, neuro signs(miss prey, rolling over weird), including stargazing. (2) chronic poor doer: general debilitation, anorexia, regurg...supportive tx will inc lifespan (3) clinically healthy: persistant viremia for 10mo and then becomes a chronic poor doer
if you think it is OPMV, what must you rule out?reovirus
how do you diagnose OPMV (ophidian paramyxovirus)there will be a rising titer prior to clinical illness-->even healthy uninfected can have titer. Some animals carry titer that is an exposure titer. They were exposed and immune resonded and protective titer, we dont know if they will break for dz. What do you do in these cases? Tricky. Tell owner if its a protective titer or if they will break with dz. You can do post mortem histology on the lung, liver, kidney, and splenopancreas. Also can do PCR (to UF ppt says, not sure what UF is)

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